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Berlin Environmental Atlas

06.07 Urban Structure / 06.08 Urban Structure - Area Types Differentiated (Edition 2016)

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Area types of the "Public service and other special uses" group

Group V Public service and other special uses
TYPE 43 Administrative
TYPE 45 Culture
TYPE 41 Security and order
TYPE 12 Old school (built before 1945)
TYPE 13 New school (built after 1945)
TYPE 44 University and research
TYPE 47 Children's day care centre
TYPE 51 Other youth facility
TYPE 58 Camping ground
TYPE 60 Other and miscellaneous public facility / special use area
TYPE 49 Church
TYPE 46 Hospital
TYPE 98 Construction site
Tab. 5: Area types of the "Public service and other special uses" group

Excel
[Table is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

All block sections shown on the actual use map as Public service and other special use areas are assigned to one of the following area types:

Area type 43 "Administrative" is assigned to the locations of public administrative offices. These include e.g. the borough offices, the town halls, the job centres, the courts, Senate departments, and such federal facilities as the locations of the ministries and the Bundestag. By contrast, embassies are assigned to the category "Other and miscellaneous public facility/special use area" (type 60).

Area type 45 "Culture" includes city museums, theatres, operas, the Philharmonic, etc. It also includes large-scale memorial graves and monuments.

Area type 41 "Security and order" includes areas used by the police, the fire department, the prison system, the military etc.

Area type 12 "Old school (built before 1945)" describes the schools built before 1945, on relatively small lots in the neighbourhoods characterized by imperial-era block construction. Their structural style is similar to that of the Wilhelminian-period area types. The non-built-up areas are used as leisure courtyards with playgrounds, or, rarely, as sports facilities.

Area type 13 "New school (built after 1945)" describes the schools built since 1945. Particularly the school centres built during the 1970s have very large lots, the non-built-up areas of which are used as leisure courtyards, playgrounds, or sports facilities. Both area types, New schools and Old schools, include exclusively general educational and vocational schools. The locations of music schools, horticultural schools, "people's colleges", etc., are assigned to area type 60 "Other and miscellaneous public facilities/special use areas", since they do not have the buildings and open space structures typical of schools.

Area type 44 "University and research" includes primarily the universities and colleges, as well as their associated teaching and experimental fields with agricultural or horticultural character, which are shown in the use map as public facility/special use area with corresponding open space dual use.

Area type 47 "Children's day care centre" covers larger childcare centres occupying entire blocks. Smaller institutions are generally mapped in combination with other public facilities, such as schools or as part of residential areas. The buildings built since the Second World War are usually 1-2 storeys high; in rare cases they have three or more storeys. The old buildings have been adapted to the building style of the surroundings. Childcare facilities have very high open space shares, which are often intensively designed and used as recreational and play areas.

Area type 51 "Other youth facility" includes larger youth facilities sites which cannot be assigned to any other category, e.g. youth clubs, youth recreational centres, youth training centres, children's and young people's homes, children's and young people circuses, school country centres, traffic schools and youth hostels and youth guesthouses.

Area type 58 "Camping ground" includes tent grounds, camping grounds and permanent campgrounds with mobile shelters, but not purely caravan camping places with an impervious parking-area-like character. Built-up areas include infrastructural facilities, such as sanitary buildings, and shopping facilities or restaurants, but the share of built-up areas overall is relatively slight.

Area type 60 "Other and miscellaneous public facilities and special use area" includes all public facilities areas which, as a result of lack of information or due to the nature of the system described herein, cannot be assigned to any other common use or public facilities area type.

Area type 49 "Church" is assigned if a considerable portion of the area of a block is occupied by church buildings. They often occur in connection with city squares or cemeteries, and may be mapped accordingly, as dual use areas.

Area type 46 "Hospital" includes both the structural facilities and the sometimes very extensive external grounds of each such institution. The time of construction of the hospitals is spread throughout the various construction eras. The hospital facilities built in the early 20th century were in some cases built in pavilion style. The relatively large external areas were designed as parks, and include a large share of access facilities. In later years, the style of construction was abandoned in favour of the central main building. However, large park-like external areas are usually typical here, too.

Area type 98 "Construction site" includes all areas designated as construction sites on the actual use map. These are areas with typical construction site characteristics, generally with bare soil. Once the foundations and/or the first storeys of a new building can be recognized, the site will be reclassified in accordance with its planned utilization.

Area types of the "Green and open spaces" group

Group VI Green and open spaces
TYPE 54 City square / promenade
TYPE 17 Sport facility, covered
TYPE 16 Sport facility, uncovered
TYPE 36 Tree nursery / horticulture
TYPE 37 Allotment garden
TYPE 53 Park / green space
TYPE 27 Cemetery
TYPE 57 Fallow area
TYPE 56 Agriculture
TYPE 55 Forest
TYPE 100 Body of water
Tab. 6: Area types of the "Green and open spaces" group

Excel
[Table is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

Area type 54 "City square / promenade" includes all areas mapped for this use in the actual use map, provided they have not been assigned any dual use as Public facilities / special use or traffic areas. These are public spaces in the life of the city which serve as places of leisure and recreation, assembly, or markets, or else as transit areas for pedestrians and bicyclists closed to street traffic. City squares and promenades generally have a higher degree of impermeability than do those of the area type "Park / green space".

Area type 17 "Sports facility, covered" includes sports facilities in which the share of covered sports facilities (halls) is dominant. These may include combinations of sports fields and sports halls, stadiums and multipurpose halls with a predominantly structural character, indoor swimming pools, riding halls and ice-skating rinks, as well as covered over water sports facilities.

Area type 16 "Sports facility, uncovered" includes major sports locations in which the share of uncovered – i.e. non-built-up – sports facilities dominates the appearance. The buildings belonging to the sports facilities, such as dressing rooms and equipment storage facilities, are also included. Uncovered sports facilities may include stadiums, single sports fields, with or without tracks, in some cases located on the grounds of schools, tennis courts, outdoor swimming pools, golf courses and facilities used for riding, shooting or water sports.

Area type 36 "Tree nursery / horticulture" is assigned only to those block sections which are shown with that use in the actual use map. These are areas with predominantly open land plantation. It includes not only the planning areas of private tree nurseries and horticultural businesses, but also the borough horticultural operations and the city horticultural vocational schools. Areas entirely inside halls, on the other hand, are counted as commercial and industrial use.

Area type 37 "Allotment garden" includes all areas mapped for this use in the actual use map, provided they have not been assigned any dual use as traffic areas. The assignment and area delineation of the allotment gardens is based on the catalogue of data of Berlin allotment garden facilities maintained by the respective Senate department, which lists the allotment gardens as per the Federal Allotment Garden Law.
Other areas with similar use characteristics are assigned in the actual use map to the use categories "Weekend cottage and allotment-garden-type use", and are therefore assigned to area type 59 "Weekend cottage and allotment-garden-type use" in the urban structure mapping system.

Area type 53 "Park / green space" includes only block sections which are also assigned to the category Parks/green spaces on the actual use map, provided they have not been assigned any dual use as public service and other special uses or as traffic areas. In addition to the public green spaces listed in the Register of Green Spaces, this category also includes other green areas, provided their appearance is similar to that of publicly accessible green spaces, and that they evidently enjoy regular horticultural care. The extensive park and leisure facilities mapped in the actual use map as parks or green spaces, which are almost exclusively characterized by extensively cared-for or non-cared-for forests or meadow-like areas, may be assigned to the area types Fallows or Forests (e.g. Klein-Glienicke People's Park).

Area type 27 "Cemetery" includes all areas mapped for this use in the actual use map, provided they have not been assigned any dual use as Public facilities/special use areas. In addition to those areas currently used for burials, these include former cemeteries, provided that their character as cemeteries is still recognizable. Structurally, cemeteries vary primarily in terms of their stock of trees. While forests cemeteries and older park cemeteries are essentially characterized by their old tree stands, newer cemetery facilities may have almost no large trees.

Area type 57 "Fallow area" describes the usually no longer used areas on which a variegated array of vegetation, such as nutrient poor or dry meadows or ruderal fields may develop. All areas mapped under one of the fallow use categories are aggregated in this area type, unless they also have a structural use; in that case there type assignment is in accordance with that structural use. Moreover, certain facilities mapped under the use category "Park / green space" may be assigned to this area type is the area evidently is not being cared for, and is dominated by ruderal vegetation (e.g. Tegel Creek).

Area type 56 "Agriculture" is assigned to all block sections which are shown on the actual use map either as pastures/meadows or farmland, provided they have no dual use as public service and other special use areas. In that case, they would be assigned to one of the above area types (see above, area types of public service and other special uses). Blocks with operational courtyards used by horticultural offices as well as certain research institutions such as the Institute for Crops Research and associated teaching and experimental fields of the universities are mapped as dual use public service and other special use areas, and are then not assigned to the area type "Tree nursery/ horticulture", but rather to the area type group "Public service and other special uses" (see above).

Area type 55 "Forest" includes all areas mapped as the use category "Forest", unless they at the same time have some structural use. In that case, the type assignment is in accordance with that structural use. In addition, some areas mapped in the use category "Park / green space" may be assigned to this area type, if they are predominantly extensively cared for areas planted with trees (e.g. Klein-Glienicke People's Park).

Area type 100 "Body of water" is assigned to all block sections which are also shown as body of water in the actual use map. Body of water include not only natural waters, such as rivers and lakes, but also canals and the retention and seepage basins of the Berlin Waterworks, provided they are recognizable as water surfaces.

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