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Berlin Environmental Atlas

06.07 Urban Structure / 06.08 Urban Structure - differentiated (Edition 2011)

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Section types of green and open space uses

Group IV Section types of green and open space uses
TYPE 55 Forests
TYPE 100 Bodies of water
TYPE 56 Agriculture
TYPE 36 Tree nurseries/ horticulture
TYPE 53 Parks/ green spaces
TYPE 54 City squares/ promenades
TYPE 27 Cemeteries
TYPE 37 Allotment gardens
TYPE 57 Fallows
TYPE 16 Sports facilities, uncovered
TYPE 17 Sports facilities, covered
Tab. 4: Section types of green and open space uses

Excel
[Table is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

The section type "Forests" includes all areas mapped as the use category "Forests", unless they at the same time have some structural use. In that case, the type assignment is in accordance with that structural use. In addition, some areas mapped in the use category "Parks/green spaces" may be assigned to this section type, if they are predominantly extensively cared for areas planted with trees (e.g. Glienicke Castle Park).

The section type "Bodies of water" is assigned to all block sections which are also shown as bodies of water in the actual use map. Bodies of water include not only natural waters, such as rivers and lakes, but also canals and the retention and seepage basins of the Berlin Waterworks, provided they are recognizable as water surfaces.

The section type "Agriculture" is assigned to all block sections which are shown on the actual use map either as pastures/meadows or farmland, provided they have no dual use as public facilities/ special use areas. In that case, they would be assigned to one of the above section types (see section types of public facilities and special use).

The section type "Tree nurseries/ horticulture" is assigned only to those block sections which are shown with that use in the actual use map. These are areas with predominantly open land plantation. It includes not only the planning areas of private tree nurseries and horticultural businesses, but also the borough horticultural operations and the city horticultural vocational schools. Areas entirely inside halls, on the other hand, are counted as commercial and industrial use.
Block sections with borough horticultural operations, city horticultural vocational schools, operational courtyards of the horticultural offices and certain research institutions such as the Institute for Crops Research and associated teaching and experimental fields of the universities are mapped as dual use public facilities/special use areas, and are then not assigned to the section type "Tree nurseries/horticulture", but rather to the section type "Public facilities/special use".

The section type "Parks/ green spaces" includes only block sections which are also assigned to the category Parks/green spaces on the actual use map, provided they have not been assigned any dual use as public facilities/special use or as traffic areas. In addition to the public green spaces listed in the Register of Green Spaces of the Senate Department of Urban Development, this category also includes other green areas, provided their appearance is similar to that of publicly accessible green spaces, and that they evidently enjoy regular horticultural care.
The extensive park and leisure facilities mapped in the actual use map as parks or green spaces, which are almost exclusively characterized by extensively cared-for or non-cared-for forests or meadow-like areas, may be assigned to the section types Fallows or Forests (e.g. Klein-Glienicke People’s Park).

The section type "City squares/ promenades" includes all areas mapped for this use in the actual use map, provided they have not been assigned any dual use as Public facilities/ special use areas. These are public spaces in the life of the city which serve as places of leisure and recreation, assembly, or markets, or else as transit areas for pedestrians and bicyclists closed to street traffic.
Urban squares and promenades generally have a higher degree of impermeability then do those of the section type "Parks/green spaces".

The section type "Cemeteries" includes all areas mapped for this use in the actual use map, provided they have not been assigned any dual use as Public facilities/special use areas. In addition to those areas currently used for burials, these include former cemeteries, provided that their character as cemeteries is still recognizable.
Structurally, cemeteries vary primarily in terms of their stock of trees. While forests cemeteries and older park cemeteries are essentially characterized by their old tree stands, newer cemetery facilities may have almost no large trees.

The section type "Allotment gardens" includes all areas mapped for this use in the actual use map, provided they have not been assigned any dual use as traffic areas. The assignment and area delineation of the allotment gardens is based on the map and list of Berlin allotment garden colonies maintained by the Senate Department for Urban Development, which lists the allotment gardens with allotment garden use as per the Federal Allotment Garden Law.
Other areas with similar use characteristics are assigned in the actual use map to the use categories "Weekend cottages and allotment-garden-type use", and are therefore assigned to the section type "Weekend cottages and allotment-garden-type use" in the urban structure mapping system.

The section type "Fallows" describes the usually no longer used areas on which a variegated array of vegetation, such as nutrient poor or dry meadows or ruderal fields may develop. All areas mapped under one of the fallow use categories are assigned to this section type, unless they also have a structural use; in that case there type assignment is in accordance with that structural use. Moreover certain facilities mapped under the use category "Parks/green spaces" may be assigned to this section type is the area evidently is not being cared for, and is dominated by ruderal vegetation (e.g. Tegel Creek).

The section type "Sports facilities, uncovered" includes major sports locations in which the share of uncovered – i.e. non-built-up – sports facilities dominates the appearance. The buildings belonging to the sports facilities, such as dressing rooms and equipment storage facilities, are also included. Uncovered sports facilities may include stadiums, single sports fields, with or without tracks, in some cases located on the grounds of schools, tennis courts, outdoor swimming pools, golf courses and facilities used for riding, shooting or water sports.

The section type "Sports facilities, covered" includes sports facilities in which the share of covered sports facilities (halls) is dominant. These may include combinations of sports fields and sports halls, stadiums and multipurpose halls with a predominantly structural character, indoor swimming pools, riding halls and ice-skating rinks, as well as covered over water sports facilities.

Traffic use and other section types

Group V Traffic use section types
TYPE 91 Parking areas
TYPE 93 Airports
TYPE 92 Railway stations and railway grounds, without track areas
TYPE 99 Track areas
TYPE 94 Other traffic areas
Group VI Other section types
TYPE 98 Construction sites
Tab. 5: Traffic use and other section types

Excel
[Table is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

The section type "Parking areas" is only assigned for car parks, parking garage buildings and garage facilities which either occupy an entire statistical block, or which evidently are unconnected with the utilization in that block. For instance, the car parks in the areas of major estates do not constitute block segments, even if they exceed the ascertainment limit of 1 ha, since they are part of the specific structure of this residential use. However, if such car parks are located in a separate block, they will be assigned to the use category "Traffic space" and the section type "Parking area". This procedure also applies to the car parks in the vicinity of Public facilities/special use areas, such as the Olympic Stadium and the Messe Berlin Fairgrounds. In addition, median strips used as car parks and scattered large car parks in the city area and in recreational areas are assigned to this type.

The section type "Airports" includes both the runways, airport buildings and access areas such as roads and car parks, and the extensive open spaces surrounding the runways of airports, the latter being mapped as dual use traffic space and fallows.

The section type "Railway stations and railway grounds, without track areas" includes all railway facilities except for the tracks, such as e.g. surface railway stations, railway freight stations, workshop areas, etc. Railway areas are a special case for the assignment of dual use categories. In order to reduce the formation of block segments to the necessary minimum, the possibility for assigning dual use is used very broadly in this case. Thus, areas of the categories "Forests", "Parks/green spaces", "Urban squares/promenades", "Allotment garden facilities" and "Fallows" which are contained in railway blocks together with railway facilities are mapped as dual use traffic areas with the corresponding green space category. If the area is used by the railway, the type assignment is carried out in accordance with the respective utilization by the railway; otherwise the area will be assigned to the section type "Other traffic areas".

The section type "Track areas" describes the track areas of the city railway and the long-distance railway, as well as those sections of the underground/subway running outside the tunnels in open cuts. The tracks are shown in their entirety.

The section type "Other traffic areas" includes not only the operating facilities of the BVG and his ZOB, but also traffic islands (except those which are evidently car parks), green and fallow strips along traffic routes, and promenades. It also includes areas of the categories "Forests", "Parks/green spaces", "Urban squares/promenades", "Allotment garden facilities" and "Fallows" within railway blocks which are not used by the railway. In the use map, they are shown as dual use traffic areas with the corresponding green space category.

The section type "Construction sites" includes all areas designated as construction sites on the actual use map. These are areas with typical construction site characteristics, generally with bare soil. Once the foundations and/or the first storeys of a new building can be recognized, the site will be reclassified in accordance with its planned utilization. In the current edition, no block sections are assigned to this section type.

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