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Berlin Environmental Atlas

06.07 Urban Structure / 06.08 Urban Structure - differentiated (Edition 2011)

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Map Description

Section types of mixed, commercial and industrial uses, and utilities

Group II Section types of mixed, commercial and industrial uses, and utilities
TYPE 29 Core area
TYPE 31 Commercial and industrial area, large-scale retail, dense development
TYPE 30 Commercial and industrial area, large-scale retail, sparse development
TYPE 38 Non-residential mixed use area, dense development
TYPE 33 Non-residential mixed use area, sparse development
TYPE 32 Utilities areas
Tab. 2: Section types of mixed, commercial and industrial uses, and utilities

Excel
[Table is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

The section type "Core areas" has all block sections assigned to it which are shown in the actual use map as core use areas. These are areas with high use intensity and density which are located exclusively in the central areas of the inner city and in the major borough centres. The core areas are of overarching significance for commerce, private and public services, and cultural and scientific institutions. Sometimes public facilities in the inner-city area, such as federal administrative buildings, embassies, etc., are assigned to this category.
Structurally, there are major differences between particular areas. The spectrum extends from imperial-era block construction to more recent high-rise construction. Generally, these areas are characterized by a high degree of urban density and of imperviousness.

The section type "Commercial and industrial areas, large-scale retail, dense development" describes areas with a corresponding use in which more than half of the area of the respective lot is built up and intensively used. Especially at the edge of the city, commercial and industrial areas have the typical structural design with large building cubatures. By contrast, the structural design in the inner-city areas, especially in small blocks, tends to include smaller structures adapted to the surroundings.

The section type "Commercial and industrial areas, large-scale retail, sparse development" describes areas with a corresponding use in which one half or less of the respective lot is built up. The use of these large lot areas is here almost exclusively for the purposes of commercial production, the storage and shipment of goods, or as car and truck parks. There is virtually no residential use here.
Commercial areas with sparse development are increasingly located at the edge of the city, especially in areas with favourable traffic conditions, such as motorways, rail connections and waterways. There buildings are predominantly single-storey structures built during the post-war period, with generous surrounding spaces. In underused areas, these facilities are often interspersed with fallow areas. Generally these areas have a lower level of imperviousness than the commercial and industrial areas with dense development.

The section type "Non-residential mixed use areas, dense development" describes block sections with mixed use, in which more than half of the respective lot is built up, and the open spaces are almost entirely used as car parks or storage space. They are characterized by a mixture of residential and commercial use. The external appearance is largely marked by commercial use; the characteristics of residential use are little in evidence, so that the block cannot be assigned to any of the section types with residential character (see Group I).
This section type occurs mostly in inner-city densely built-up areas and in the centres of the outer areas of the city. It involves primarily multi-storey structures, often with storefronts and storage or manufacturing halls in the courtyards. The lot areas are more than half built-up.

The section type "Non-residential mixed use areas, sparse development" describes block sections with mixed use in which half or less of the respective lot is built-up. The commercial structures, which were only recently built, particularly in the outer city boroughs, consist primarily of single-storey halls and building complexes with large surrounding open spaces.
The commercially used areas involve primarily commercial operations with a high share of storage, shipment and car and truck parking (junkyards, dealers in building materials, shipping companies and retail businesses). They occupy a major part of the block section, so that the block cannot be assigned to any of the section types with residential character (see Group I). There are also large areas which are unused or only extensively used, on which spontaneous vegetation in varying phases of development is located (fallows). Generally, these areas have a lower degree of imperviousness than the mixed areas with dense development.

The section type "Utilities areas" includes all block sections shown in the actual use map as Utilities areas. This category includes areas with facilities for electricity, gas, water and district heat supply, as well as waste and sewage disposal.

Section types of public facilities/ special use

Group III Section types of public facilities/ special use
TYPE 41 Security and order
TYPE 43 Administrative
TYPE 46 Hospitals
TYPE 49 Churches
TYPE 45 Culture
TYPE 44 Universities and research
TYPE 12 Old schools (built before 1945)
TYPE 13 New schools (built after 1945)
TYPE 47 Children’s day care centres
TYPE 51 Other youth facilities
TYPE 58 Camping grounds
TYPE 60 Other and miscellaneous public facilities/ special use areas
Tab. 3: Section types of public facilities/ special use

Excel
[Table is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

All block sections shown on the actual use map as Public facilities/special use areas are assigned to one of the following section types:

The section type "Security and order" includes areas belonging to the police, the fire department, the prison system, the military etc.

The section type "Administrative" is assigned to the locations of public administrative offices. These include e.g. the borough offices, the town halls, the job centres, the courts, Senate departments, and such federal facilities as the Foreign Ministry and the Bundestag. By contrast, embassies are assigned to the category "Public facilities/special use".

The section type "Hospitals" includes both the structural facilities and the sometimes very extensive external grounds of each such institution. The time of construction of the hospitals is spread throughout the various construction eras. The hospital facilities built in the early 20th century were in many cases built in pavilion style. The relatively large external areas were designed as parks, and include extensive access facilities. In later years, the style of construction was abandoned in favour of the central main building. However, large park-like external areas are usually typical here, too.

The section type "Churches" is assigned if a considerable portion of the area of a block is occupied by church buildings. They often occur in connection with city squares or cemeteries, and may be mapped accordingly, as dual use areas.

The section type "Culture" includes city museums, theatres, operas, the Philharmonic, etc. It also includes large-scale memorial graves and monuments.

The section type "Universities and research" includes primarily the universities and colleges, as well as their associated teaching and experimental fields with agricultural or horticultural character, which are shown in the use map as public facilities/special use areas with corresponding open space dual use; in addition it includes several scientific research facilities.

The section type "Old schools (built before 1945)" describes the schools built around the turn of the last century through 1945, on relatively small lots in the neighbourhoods characterized by imperial-era block construction. Their structural style is similar to that of the imperial-era section types. The non-built-up areas are used as leisure courtyards with playgrounds, or, rarely, as sports facilities.

The section type "New schools (built after 1945)" describes the schools built since 1945. Particularly the centres built during the 1970s have very large lots, the non-built-up areas of which are used as leisure courtyards, playgrounds, or sports facilities.
Both section types, New schools and Old schools, include exclusively general educational and vocational schools. The locations of music schools, horticultural schools, "people’s colleges", etc., are assigned to the section type "other public facilities/special use areas" (see below), since they do not have the buildings and open spaces typical of schools.

The section type "Children’s day care centres" covers larger childcare centres occupying entire blocks. Smaller institutions are generally mapped in combination with other public facilities, such as schools or residential areas. The buildings built since the Second World War are usually 1-2 storeys high; in rare cases they have three or more storeys. The old buildings have been adapted to the building style of the surroundings. Childcare facilities have very high open space shares, which are often intensively designed and used as recreational and play areas.

The section type "Other youth facilities" includes larger youth facilities sites which cannot be assigned to any other category, e.g. youth clubs, youth recreational centres, youth training centres, children’s and young people’s homes, children’s and young people circuses, school country centres, traffic schools and youth hostels and guesthouses.

The section type "Camping grounds" includes tent grounds and scouts’ tent grounds, camping grounds and permanent campgrounds with mobile shelters, but not purely caravan camping places with an impervious parking-area-like characters. Built-up areas include sanitary buildings, and some shops or restaurants, but the share of built-up areas overall is relatively slight.

The section type "Other and miscellaneous public facilities and special use areas" includes all public facilities areas which, as a result of lack of information or due to the nature of the system described herein, cannot be assigned to any other common use or public facilities section type.

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