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Berlin Environmental Atlas

03.06 Near Ground Ozone (Edition 1996)

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Map 03.06.2: Distribution of Ozone Maximum 1995

The map shows the distribution of the highest one-hour-maximum 1995 at all state measuring stations and those of the Federal Environmental Agency. In order to obtain an all-inclusive representation, the values between individual stations were spatially interpolated.

Values over 180 µg/m³ were recorded everywhere with the exception of some areas in South Bavaria and in Eastern Germany. There are regions where measurements in excess of 240 µg/m³ have been taken particularly in the West and Southwest. These areas are primarily located near heavily industrialized and densely populated conurbations such as the Ruhr region, the Rhine-Main region around Frankfurt, the regions Mannheim and Karlsruhe as well as greater Stuttgart where the maximum measurement of 297 µg/m³ was taken (c.f. UBA 1996).

There is accordingly a significant gap in the pollution load from the West to the Southwest in the direction of the eastern part of the country. Nonetheless, this situation corresponded to a similar one in the past summer where a similar distribution of sunshine and temperature so that there would seem to be a purely climatological explanation. In Summer 1995, the distribution of the daily temperature high in Germany was very even (c.f. Bruckmann et al. 1994 and FU Berlin 1995). In some regions of the Northeast there were even more hours of sunshine measured. However, in some regions the Northeast, there has occasionally been more hours of sunshine than in the West. However the high air pressure center often lay in the northwest and north of Germany during the summer months thus accompanying otherwise high summer conditions often in the range of a northeast to easterly airstream. This brought with it the advantage of an inflow of air for the Northeast, which benefited the areas already with relatively low ozone forming substance emission levels (e.g. the Baltic and northern Poland). In the past, this had already led to relatively low ozone levels in the Berlin region (c.f. Lutz 1994), although weather conditions favorable to ozone formation had predominated. The West and Southwest are at a disadvantage in such cases since the air has already been heavily filled with ozone forming substances by the time it has reached these areas. Together with the locally induced contribution due to orography (e.g. Oberrheingraben), this leads to higher ozone levels. The question whether the influence of local pollution emissions can have on ozone formation will be described in the results of the FluMOB measurement campaign.

Map 03.06.3: Infringement of Ozone Threshold Values 1995

In this map the average spatial distribution of ozone in Berlin is presented based upon the frequency with which the threshold values are exceeded at individual stations of the Berlin Air Quality Monitoring Network. The number of half hour averages above the "Maximum Pollution Concentration Level" (MIK) according to VDI 2310 of 120 µg/m³. In addition, the days in which the EC Threshold Values for Information of the Population and Protection of Vegetation were exceeded is also presented (c.f. Tab. 1).

To make clear the dependence of the ozone burden on the local nitrogen oxide emission, the frequency with which the values were exceeded was collated with the distribution of nitrogen oxide emission from traffic. In the comparison of both statements it becomes clear that high nitrogen oxide emissions lead to clearly fewer infringements of the ozone threshold values in the vicinity of a measuring station. Thus the MIK is 20 to 40 times more seldom exceeded than at stations on the edge of the city where in summer the level of 120 µg/m³ ozone was recorded more than 300 hours. The load at the other measuring stations, those not directly near the main traffic arteries in the city center, lie in between with durations between 70 and 200 hours in which the MIK was exceeded. The respective surpassing of the MIK at each measuring station are at first glance also applicable to other parts of the city with comparable nitrogen oxide emissions.

The 180 µg/m³ excess of the EC threshold value shows a similar pattern. At the inner city residential measuring stations there was no incidence of surpassing these levels, resp. in Neukölln this occurred only three times while at the edge of the city there was an incidence of up to nine times.

At the city's edge and thereby in the effected areas where, as a rule, Berlin's forests are to be found, the pollution at the forest measuring station Grunewald exceeds numerous guide values (as shown in Table 1) for the protection of vegetation. Daily average values (EC Guideline) of 65 µg/m³ were exceeded on 75 days in sampling at 10 m above the trees and 57 days at 4.5 m in the forest where ozone can decompose on plant parts. This brings with it damaging effects to the plants which is furthermore a substantial element of damage to the entire forest ecological system (c.f. results of the Monitoring Program and the Long-term Observation of the Forest Eco-System).

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