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Berlin Environmental Atlas

01.15 Engineer's Geological Map (Edition 2017)

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Sand of Glacial Valleys in the Area of the Glacial Spillway and the Side Valleys

In the Warsaw-Berlin glacial spillway, the sand of glacial valleys (qw/S/ut) is mostly more than 10 m thick; under it are the sediments of the Saalian Glaciation.

In the upper strata, the sand of glacial valleys is fine to medium-granular, to some extent slightly silty; with increasing depth, it becomes coarser, and frequently contains gravelly additions.

The Weichselian and also the Saalian Glaciation ground moraine is largely eroded, so that the Weichselian Glaciation sands are here usually underlain directly by older sands (sometimes to depths of more than 50 m).

The same sand sequence (qw/S/ut) can be found in the Panke Valley, a side valley of the glacial spillway, except that its thickness is only seldom more than 10 m.

Locally, till layers occur as erosion residues, traces both of the Weichselian and the Saalian Glaciation ground moraines.

Due to its friable nature, the sand of glacial valleys has high water conductivity, and is a good aquifer.

Tab. 4: Physical Soil Values of Sand of Glacial Valleys (qw/S/ut)
Particle size distribution: 1 - 4 m depth:
Fine sand: ± medium-sandy,
Fine to medium sand, weakly coarse sandy
4 - 10 m depth:
Medium sand: fine sandy, ± coarse sandy, partially weakly gravelly
Medium sand: ± coarse sandy, partially gravelly
At the edge of the glacial spillway:
frequently with higher silt portion, within the glacial spillway, locally with till residues, rubble horizons, silt layers
Fig./group symbol as per DIN 18 196: mostly SE
Non-uniformity U: mostly 1.6 - 2.8; in layers > 3.2
Density of damp soil ρ: 1.5 g/cu.cm (1.5 - 2.5 m depth)
1.8 g/cu.cm (2.5 - 6.0 m depth)
2.1 g/cu.cm (6.0 - 7.0 m depth)
Dry density ρd: 1.45 - 1.9 g/cu.cm
Water content w: 5 % (above groundwater)
20 % (in groundwater)
Deposit density: medium-dense; at greater depth, dense

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