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Berlin Environmental Atlas

05.08 Biotope Types (Edition 2014)

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Map Description

Biotope types

After the intial ascertainment of the biotopes in Berlin (primary data) was completed, the results were combined with the secondary data to produce a full-coverage map of biotope types. Information is available for over 80,000 biotopes.

The GIS and factual data can be used for a wide varienty of auditing queries. They provide the following overview of Berlin, compiled in 12 classes of the most important biotope types:

Biotope type classes Area in hectares Proportion of the total area of Berlin
01  Flowing waters 969.48 1.1 %
02 Standing waters (including shore area, cane brakes etc.) 4,547.07 5.1 %
03 Anthropogenic regosol sites and ruderal fields 2,063.92 2.3 %
04 Bogs and marshes 167.31 0.2 %
05 Green spaces, herb fringe fields and grassland communities 4,104.54 4.6 %
06 Dwarf shrub heaths 17.63 0.0 %
07 Bushes, tree rows and groves 1,907.89 2.1 %
08 Forests 16,868.57 18.9 %
09 Fields 2,074.05 2.3 %
10 Green and open spaces 8,723.16 9.8 %
11 Special biotopes 300.11 0.3 %
12 Built-up areas, traffic facilities and special areas 47,287.04 53.1 %
BERLIN 89,030.77 100.0 %
Tab. 4: Break-down of biotope type classes, as of 2013

Bogs, marshes, cane brakes, and wet meadows rich in rushes und sedge, spring areas, near-natural non-built-up stream sections, land-forming areas of stationary waters, open inland dunes, dwarf shrub heaths, marsh and flood-plain forests, pine-oak woods, oak-beech woods, oak-hornbeam woods, lean and dry grasslands, wet meadows, near-natural fresh meadows, gravel, sand and marl quaries, country hedges and fruit trees and shrubs in open landscape are all legally protected biotopes in Berlin. These are the most important, but also the most endangered biotope types.

The existing areas are described in detail on the basis of their habitats, their existing flora and fauna, and their endangerment and impairments. Moreover, instruction for care and biotope preservation are provided.

Map "Biotope types - legally protected biotopes"

The map of the legally protected biotopes includes only data for the areas investigated as primary data. It shows all biotopes which, in the professional opinion of the expert (mapper), fall under the legal protection of § 30 of the BNatSchG and the § 28 of the NatSchGBln. Whether or not this expert assessment is actually to be used however, is a matter to be decided by the locally responsible conservation authority. In cases of non-absolute legal assignment by the mapper/expert, or if biotopes have not been locally investigated, the uncertain protected status is indicated by the symbole §?:
There are 4,000 cases. Marking these areas there still existing potentials should be shown.
The colours and markings used here correspond to those of the "Map of Biotope Types". Areas for which only secondary data exist and biotopes with no legal protected status are not present/shown in the map.

An audit of the primary data yields the following result for legally protected biotope areas. Additional legally protected biotopes are to be expected in the areas covered by secondary data.

Biotope type classes Legally protected biotopes in hectares Proportion of legally protected biotopes in the biotope class in %
01  Flowing waters 29.35 3.0 %
02 Standing waters (including shore areas, cane brakes etc.) 739.59 16.3 %
03 Anthropogenic regosol sites and ruderal fields 16.90 0.8 %
04 Bogs and marshes 167.10 99.9 %
05 Green spaces, herb fringe fields and grassland communities 1,029.60 25.1 %
06 Dwarf shrub heaths 17.58 99.7 %
07 Bushes, tree rows and groves 183.28 9.6 %
08 Forests 2,830.94 16.8 %
09 Fields 0.00 0.0 %
10 Green and open spaces 0.09 0.0 %
11 Special biotopes 0.00 0.0 %
12 Built-up areas, traffic facilities and special areas 2.24 0.0 %
BERLIN 5,016.67 5.6 %
Tab. 5: Biotope types with legal protected status, as of 2013

Habitat types under the Habitats Directive

The map of habitat types under the Habitats Directive shows all biotopes which, in the professional opinion of the expert (mapper), correspond to a habitat type under the Habitats Directive, or are to be classed in a complex with an LRT, on the basis of the Manual for the Implementation of the Habitats Directive (Ssymank u.a. 1998) or the Catalogue of Natural Habitats and Species of Appendices I and II of the Habitats Directive in Brandenburg (LUA 2002). Habitat types are shown in solid colours, and LRT complexes in coloured cross-hatching. Biotopes which do not fall under the Habitats Directive are shown on this map in off-white (area) or grey (lines and points). Areas for which only secondary data are available are not included on the map.

LRT complexes are biotope types which constitute contexts ("complexes") together with the actual Habitats Directive habitat types, but which do not exhibit the required quality. The goal is to improve the complexes to the level of habitat types; hence, they are also subject to the goals of the Habitats Directive.

In order to ensure better distinction of the Habitats Directive habitat types, a special colour and marking system has been developed which compiles the biotope type occurrence in Berlin in groups, to each of which a colour marking is assigned in accordance with the legend of the Habitats Directive LRTs. Biotopes classed as part of an LRT complex are shown as cross-hatched areas, dotted lines, or circled points. For area-wide biotopes, the respective LRT code is given in red, permitting each biotope type to be identified.

Data sources on biotope types

For the maps of the Full-Coverage Biotope Type Mapping project to be interpreted, it is indispensable to provide the method of data collection for every single area. The Biotope Type Map data source serves this purpose. It identifies the delimitation and classification of the biotope types as per the Berlin Biotope Type List, listing the primary and secondary data by method of collection. Primary data are collected based on surface and aerial image mapping. Secondary data are recoded data from the Environmental Atlas (Urban Structure), the Green Space, Cemetery and Allotment Garden land registers, and the Map of Bodies of Water (Small Waters).

  1. Biotope mapping (primary data, surface collection): All forests, Natura 2000 areas, nature and landscape protection areas and valuable conservation areas (outlying areas)
  2. Biotope types (primary data, aerial image collection): Collected using recent aerial photoggraphy
  3. Urban structure data from the Berlin Environmental Atlas, recoded to biotope types (secondary data): particularly built-up areas, industrial and commercial areas
  4. Recoding of existing data from the Green Space, Cemetery and Allotment Garden land registers.

Approx. 38,500 hectares of area of the Berlin Biotope Type Map have been mapped on the basis of primary data, and 50,500 hectares ascertained on the basis of secondary data.

Biotope Types Biotope Values

As expected, those areas shown on the Biotope Values Map as having the highest values (extremely high) depict the legally protected biotopes and the areas certified under the Habitat Directive. Since these are in most cases still relatively near-natural areas in forest, water body and shoreline areas, the vast majority of them are in areas of the boroughs of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf, Reinickendorf and Treptow-Köpenick remote from the city centre. Areas with very high or high biotope values are however also present in more heavily used areas, such as Tegel Airport, the Charlottenburg Palace Park, Jungfernheide or Wuhlheide.

By accessing the factual data display for any selected area, the point count for the biotope evaluation, and hence the conflict potential in case of possible change of use, can be ascertained.

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