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Berlin Environmental Atlas

03.09 Traffic-related Air Pollution - Hydrocarbons

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Total Emissions of Motor Traffic

Map 03.09.6 - Total Emissions of Motor Traffic portrays all emission producers. These producers were previously depicted only singly. A comparison with Map 03.09.2 - Traffic Emissions 1989 (cf. Map 03.08 SenStadtUm 1994) enables a few conclusions to be drawn about changes in the number of motor vehicles and in total emission loads. A total emission load of 51,900 tons was ascertained in 1989. The highest motor traffic emissions were determined in the eastern inner city. This is mainly due to the high emissions produced by vehicles with two-stroke engines. Total emissions then fell to 25,500 tons, after 1) a decrease in the number of vehicles with two-stroke engines, such as Trabants and Wartburgs, and after 2) a 57 % increase in the number of motor vehicles equipped with regulated catalytic converters (reference year 1993). Exhaust gas emissions are the dominate source, with 60 % of total emissions. Relatively high loads are registered in the area between the city expressways in the North and West, Steglitzer Kreisel in the South, and the Karl-Marx-Allee / Frankfurter Allee thoroughfare in the East. No particular focuses of loads were determined. The highest loads of 160 to 212 t/km²·a were found along the long Kaiserdamm - Bismarckstrasse avenues, as well as south of them. It is conspicuous that twice as many hydrocarbon emissions can be produced in residential areas with little traffic but many parked vehicles: stopped traffic can produce twice as much hydrocarbon emissions as moving traffic.

Evaporative Emissions at Fuel Stations

Map 03.09.7 shows fuel station refilling emissions for the inner city in 1993. Only motor vehicle refueling is considered here; refilling of the petrol depot at the fuel station is not considered. The most significant amount of refueling emissions, about 96 %, results from fuel stations which do not have fuel vapor recovery systems.

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Tab. 4: Amount of Fuel Turnover and Annual Refueling Hydrocarbon Emissions at Berlin Fuel Stations in 1993

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[Table is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

Total refueling and transfer emissions at Berlin fuel stations include those resulting from the transfer of fuel from tankers, ship tankers, and railroad tank cars into fuel station depots. Total refueling and transfer emissions in 1993 amounted to about 3,630 tons of hydrocarbons; approximately 10 % of total hydrocarbon emissions. About 96 %, the most significant proportion by far, resulted from fuel stations which did not have fuel vapor recovery systems. All fuel stations selling more than 1,000 m³ of fuel per year were required to be equipped with fuel vapor recovery systems before the end of 1997. This requirement has been mostly fulfilled, as noted in Table 3. The fuel vapor recovery systems and the declining number of fuel stations, taken together, should reduce loads to a little less than 20 % of the 1993 total.

The distribution of fuel stations is naturally closely coupled to developed areas. Some of these areas have emissions at levels similar to total motor traffic evaporation resulting from tank respiration and switched-off warm and hot engines. The number of grids registering high emission loads decreases noticeably as the edges of the city are approached.

Exhaust Gas Emissions of Benzol on Primary Road Network

Map 03.09.8 shows carcinogenic benzol emissions on the primary road network. For calculation purposes, different amounts of benzol in HC exhaust emissions were assigned based on engine type. The benzol percentage for vehicles with regulated catalytic converters in a "warm" condition was set at 8.1 %. A mean of 5.3 % was assigned for total vehicles.

Benzol emissions are proportional to hydrocarbon emissions due to their close relationship (see Map 03.09.1). A total of 793 tons of benzol were emitted on the Berlin primary road network; this is about 50 % of total traffic-related benzol emissions. Knowledge about benzol emission distribution on the primary road network is necessary to ascertain the pollution concentration for each area, locate heavily polluted areas, and to conduct comparisons with the yearly average concentration value, as stipulated by the 23rd Regulation of the Federal Pollution Control Law (cf. Map 03.10).

Benzol - Total Emissions of Motor Vehicle Traffic

Map 03.09.9 shows that almost the entire inner city has emission levels of over three tons per square kilometer per year in each grid. Benzol loads are considerably lower towards the city edges; this is similar to total hydrocarbon loads. Only a few borough centers have levels close to those in the inner ring of the City Rail Circle Line (S-Bahn-Ring).

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