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Berlin Environmental Atlas

03.09 Traffic-related Air Pollution - Hydrocarbons

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Emission Models for Primary Road Networks (Line Sources) and Secondary Road Networks (Area Sources)

The emission simulation model EMISS helped calculate pollutant and CO2 emissions (cf. Map 08.03 CO2 Emissions, SenStadtUmTech, in preparation), and fuel consumption for traffic on primary road networks.

Figure 3 shows the individual model parameters, including total travelled distance factors, stop-and-go formulas, cold start factors, etc., and the results. The methodological background is described in detail in Liwicki, Garben 1993.

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Fig. 3: EMISS - Emission Model for Primary Roads (Line Sources) (Liwicki, Garben 1993)

Emissions for motorized two-wheel vehicles could not be ascertained because traffic counts do not exist. Two-wheel vehicle contribution to total emissions are calculated on the basis of total travelled distances in Germany, and on available emission factors.

Road segments in areas of varying topography are classified according to longitudinal inclines; but this is not necessary for Berlin.

Emission Model for Secondary Road Network (Area Sources)

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Fig. 4: EM-NEBEN - Emission Model for Secondary Road Network (Area Sources) (Liwicki, Garben 1993)

Emissions in the secondary road network are not calculated for each specific road segment. Emissions are calculated for a grid area of 1 km². Travelled distances within the grid surface area are estimated based on the following data:

  • predominant use of the area, subdivided into:
    • residential living in outer areas of the city,
    • small business and industrial areas,
    • inner city and suburban areas,
  • number of inhabitants and positions of employment, differentiated according to:
    • commercial and service industry,
    • manufacturing industry,
  • and motor traffic source-goal-matrices derived from the above.

It can be assumed that significant traffic jams do not occur in the secondary road network. "Stop and go" supplements are not added to the calculations. Daily, weekly and annual matrices for the secondary road network were then not necessary.

Further input variables needed for determining total emissions for each pollutant component in each grid area correspond to the input variables used for calculating total emissions in the primary road network.

Refueling Emissions

Refueling emissions are determined based on permit-registered fuel stations and their fuel turnovers.

1.4 g of HC per liter of carburetor fuel are emitted at fuel stations with no fuel vapor recovery systems. The fuel vapor recovery system returns 80 % of emitted amounts.

HC emissions from the preliminary chain are not given: these emissions include the transfer of fuel from 1) tanker trucks, tanker ships and railroad tank cars to the fuel depot; from 2) the fuel depot to the tanker; and from 3) the tanker to the fuel station.

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