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Berlin Environmental Atlas

03.09 Traffic-related Air Pollution - Hydrocarbons

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Statistical Base

Cadastre of Motor Traffic Emissions

The Berlin Department of Urban Development, Environmental Protection and Technology (SenStadtUmTech - Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung, Umweltschutz und Technologie) maintains a cadastre of emissions for the major groups of polluters, including the polluter group of motor vehicle traffic.

The 1993 Cadastre of Motor Vehicle Traffic Emissions gives the first unified picture of air pollutant emissions produced by motor vehicle traffic for the entire city of Berlin.

This cadastre uses a new method to calculate emissions. This method is also a suitable basis for dispersal calculations which can ascertain pollutant loads on roads. The far-reaching restructuring of calculation methodology allows only limited comparisons to be made with previous emission investigations based on much simpler methods.

Investigation of Motor Traffic Pollution

The basis is the first comprehensive traffic count, performed in 1993. This count included the primary road network as well as scheduled bus routes. This count resulted in the availability of certain data for every road segment in the primary road network:

  • average daily motor traffic (DTV) in motor vehicles/day,
  • average daily truck traffic in trucks/day for heavy trucks,
  • percentage of busses in regular traffic.

This data was supplemented with extensive analyses of vehicle types and total travelled distances of registered motor vehicles in Berlin. The data was also supplemented by emission factors that describe these cars and utility vehicles (cf. Map 07.01 SenStadtUm 1995).

Methodology of Emission Studies Pollutant emissions produced by motor traffic include the exhausts and abrasions of moving traffic; the evaporative emissions of stopped traffic, and evaporative emissions at fuel stations. Figure 2 presents an overview of the emission study methodology. Fuel station emissions are listed under light industry.

Fig. 2: Methodology of the 1993 Traffic Emission Cadastre

Emission models aided the calculation of pollutant and CO2 emissions for line sources (primary roads), and area sources (secondary roads and evaporative emissions).

Exhaust and abrasion emissions appear as line sources on primary and secondary roads. These emissions are calculated as line sources only for the primary road network because only these streets had data available from previous counts for average daily traffic values (DTV) and hourly capacity. Emissions from line sources are classified as area values in the grid system. Emissions for the secondary road network, however, are directly deduced from the seperate grids from assumptions made about traffic volumes and amounts of trucks.

Hydrocarbon evaporative emissions occur from pressure differences between the fuel tank and the carburetor float chamber. They occur

  • in non-moving motor vehicles resulting from daily temperature fluctuations (tank respiration emissions),
  • in hot engines after long distances,
  • in warm engines after short distances.

Evaporative hydrocarbon emissions and benzol fractions are also determined for the grids. Evaporative emissions resulting from refueling are also calculated. Evaporative emissions from moving traffic could be neglected because they are very low.

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