Urban development plan Supply & Disposal 1999

Explanations to the maps

General remarks

The maps give a general idea of the main urban networks for the individual kinds of supply and disposal, the cross linking of the factories, facilities and stations, as well as the integration of Berlin into supra-regional interconnections. In co-ordination with the utility companies the maps were drawn up to represent sites relevant for urban planning, showing the main networks, supply areas and catchment areas etc. The maps themselves are presented in the 1: 50.000 scale. The locations and areas are shown in block-sharp and boundary-sharp manner. According to the purpose of the urban development planning, the mains and pipes are assigned as exactly as possible to roads, blocks and facility locations. But saying that the maps are not accurate enough to derive a precise position.

The survey maps and partial maps of the UDP supply and disposal do not contain any information about pipe cross-sections and the connection capabilities of plots of lands (allotments), areas and sub-areas, onto the networks and facilities of the technical infrastructure. The respective utility companies are responsible for and have to be consulted over content related issues pertaining to supply of resources and waste disposal.

The representation of the topography for the Brandenburg surrounding area of Berlin is limited to waters, lakes, railway lines, main roads and motorways. Built up areas including rural communities, districts and the municipality boundaries are represented in a simplified way.

This is to help orientation and general localisation of technical infrastructure plants. In contrast with the printed versions, the abundance of optical information on the maps of Internet versions leads to a partial restriction of the rapid intuitive grasp of the information.

In order to counteract this tendency, suitable display areas are defined according to the supply type. The maps are darkened outside the boundaries of the display areas with translucent coverings. The display areas shown can be town districts, trade centres or residential areas etc. The type is indicated in the key at the edge of the map.

The sewage disposal map

This map shows the important drainage and sewage treatment installations important for the whole city. The networks of the combined and separate sewerage system: A combined sewer system was installed from 1873 onwards into the inner city of Berlin. This system collects in a combined channel system drainage and wastewater from households, commercial centres industrial sites, plots of land and the road system. The wastewater flows by utilising a gradient system as mixed water to the pumping stations. The combined sewer system underlies approximately 100 square km of the built-up city area with a total length of 1.900 km. It is emphasised in yellow on the map.

The entire remaining city area with more than 300 square km is drained by a separate system. The waste water pours through 3.600 km of channels to the pumping stations (arrows indicate the flow direction). While the water from precipitation is drained off by separate rain channels following the shortest way to the receiving waters. The waste water channels (brown with black arrow) have cross-sections of 200 up to 1.500 mm in diameter.

The combined sewers (with black and white arrows) have considerably larger dimensions (from 300 up to 2.000 mm). This is because they have to take a far greater amount of water during heavy rainfall. On the map are represented for the sake of clarity only the larger channels, with inside diameters greater than 500 mm. This however is in contrast, towards the outskirts of the city where much smaller channels with an inside diameter of 200 mm or more are also shown.

The sewage pump stations and the sewage penstocks: The Berlin Water Companies runs more than 130 sewage pump stations and by the means of 14 main pump stations and more than 50 junction pump stations waste and mixed water is fed through sewage penstocks (more than 900 km length) to the sewage treatment plants. Booster pump stations (intermediate pump stastions) pump the waste water from deep-lying quarters into the catchment area of the nearest main or junction pump station. Special pump stations serve to the convey treated waste water into the receiving waters. The main pump stations technically supervise and control the stations of the related sewerage area, by using a remote control system. Sewage penstocks are coloured violet on the map.

The clarification plants: Seven big sewage treatment plants with a total capacity of 735.000 m³ per day are operated at present by the Berlin Water Companies. Within the city boundary there are located several sewage treatment plants including one at Ruhleben a massive state-of-the-art plant with a cleaning capacity of 250.000 m³ of water per day. There are also clarification plants at Falkenberg and Marienfelde with a capacity of 110.000 m³ of water per day and 75.000 m³ of water per day respectively. Four sewage treatment plants with a combined capacity of more than 300.000 m³ per day are located in the surrounding area of Berlin. These are at Schönerlinde to the north, Münchehofe to the east as well as Wassmannsdorf and Stahnsdorf to the south of Berlin. Another water treatment plant has been built in Wansdorf north of Falkensee, as a joint project with municipalities to the north west of Berlin. It has a current capacity of 40.000 m³ per day and is supposed to receive waste water from Berlin in the near future. The sewage treatment plants in Berlin treated in 1996 about 260 Mio. m³ waste water, by using both mechanical and biological methods. About 6 % of the total came from the surrounding areas of Berlin.

In the sewage treatment plants the sewage sludge is treated or is utilised thermally. The treated waste water is fed through the treatment plant dischargers (ditches, channels or specific penstocks etc.) to the receiving waters and then on into the Berlin flow waters(lakes, canals, rivers etc.). The treatment plants at Wassmannsdorf, Marienfelde, Stahnsdorf and Ruhleben pipe their cleared waste water during the summer months into the Teltowkanal (canal), which takes between 30 and 60 % of the total treated water in Berlin. During the winter months the treatment plant at Ruhleben discharges directly into the Spree river. The outflow drains of Falkenberg and Münchehofe treatment plants discharge into the rivers Wuhle and Erpe, which eventually flow into the river Spree. The treatment plant at Schoenerlinde discharges the treated water through the ditch Commerce and Industry centre Nordgraben into the Tegeler See (lake), as well as to a smaller degree into the river Panke, which eventually empties out into the Spree.

Surface water preparation: The Berlin Water Companies processes surface waters by the elimination of phosphate at the Commerce and Industry centre Nord Tegeler See and at the Grunewald lake chain. Water is treated particularly from the graben (including treated water from the treatment plant at Schönerlinde) in order to improve the water quality of the lake Tegeler See. This is achieved at the large preparation plant in Tegel (capacity:100 Mio. m³). A smaller preparation plant at the waterworks Beelitzhof (Zehlendorf) treats roughly 3 - 4 Mio. m³ of water annually from the Havel river, by cleaning the phosphate out. The Grunewald lake chain is fed this water in order to balance water losses due to seepage into the ground.

Settlement areas without canalisation: Almost the whole built-up city area with 97 % of the inhabitants is connected with the public sewage system. But about 6 % of the settlement area is still not connected to the sewage system, which includes mostly small regions on the outskirts of the city, predominantly in the eastern part of Berlin (shown in light brown on the map ). These small settlement areas according to plans of the Berlin senate and the Berlin Water Companies are to be completely connected up by the year 2005 to the sewage system. The priority will lie with those areas lying in water protection areas.