Documentation / Online Handbook
Description of the Problem
Moscow agglomeration is located within the belt of temperate continental climate with the following average annual parameters. Temperature: 3-3.5, precipitation: about 650 mm, annual amplitude of temperatures: 28, number of days with the average daily temperature above 0: 210-214, duration of period without frosts: 120-135 days. Most of the precipitation takes place in the spring-summer period. Winter lasts 4-5 months (from the middle of November to March, inclusive). This period is characterised by cloudy weather with frequent snowfall.
Summer is temperately warm and sufficiently wet. The maximum summer temperatures in the territory of the city were 36-38 °C. Precipitation in July is between 70 and 80 mm on average. In the territory of the city, typical temperatures, sunny days, distribution of fallings, and other meteorological parameters change significantly. The "warm island" in Moscow is expressed clearly.
In winter this island is formed at the expense of fuel burning. The temperature contrasts in this period are about 1.8. In summer artificial heat is reduced and the temperature difference between the city and country is determined by solar radiation, change of albedo of the underlying surface, and the structure of the heat balance. This means that the city-country temperature differences are higher in summer than in winter and constitute more than 2.1.
About 1/3 of the annual precipitation falls in the cold period in solid form.
The stable snow cover forms in the end of November, beginning of December. Average height of snow cover constitutes 41-45 cm.
In the central part of Moscow, the relative humidity is lower than the relative humidity in the distant parts. Wind regime is very changeable in the city. This is why the 10-14 storey buildings constitute 25 % and the 15-storey buildings about 20 % of built-up areas. Forecasts for the twenty-first century predict the taller buildings will constitute 60% of built-up areas. In the process of the projects development, the aerational regime of the territory and simulation of the situation change should be taken into consideration.
The Moscow climate has been under observation since 1879. There are seven acting meteorological stations, executing standard registration of the basic meteoclimate parameters. The Ostankino TV tower is equipped with special devices for registration of parameters in the lower 500 m. layer of atmosphere. The standard parameters include temperature (8 terms), relative humidity, wind regime (speed and direction), precipitation, number of days with precipitation, duration, regime of clouds, and dangerous phenomena of nature. Episodical parameters are ice components in the lower clouds, smog, structural features of the upper and lower boards of clouds, accumulation of steams, thermal regime in the lower 500 m layer, etc. Observations follow the standard methods.
Climate monitoring is executed by the Moscow territorial deptartment Rosgidromet (MosTsGMS). Information obtained by the MosTsGMC is accumulated in the database, which allows one to process information regarding the selected parameter in the long-term and short-term order.
The telecommunication network is used only by the automatic posts of control (temperature, relative humidity, speed and direction of wind).
The climate-specific features and mezo- and microclimate zoning are determined in context with the land use of the territory, structure of built-up areas, change in water balance, pollution of atmosphere, etc. The climate features are classified on the basis of their comfort for population, conditions of pollutions dissipation, and aeration regime.
Assessment of meteorological conditions of spreading pollution in the atmosphere is expressed in the meteorological potential of pollution. This parameter includes the following indices: speed and direction of wind, vertical temperature stratification, inversions and isoterms, fogs, and quantity of precipitation.
The functional relationship of the above named parameters is used for the Moscow territory division into quality districts.
Monitoring materials regarding the meteoclimate situation require the collection of the meteoclimate features of this period.
Maps of distribution and frequency of dangerous climate parameters are under development. The map of division into districts (M 1:50 000) is used for estimation of air self-purification. This map takes into consideration the following parameters: intensity of the air movement, precipitation, summarised solar radiation, annual dose of the ultrared radiation, and additional parameters such as industrial development of the territories, density of rivers, and the network division of the surface of the territory.
The territory subdivision is based on the meteorological potential of air pollution (MPAP) parameter used for assessment of the level of ecological danger in the case of new industrial development.
The map of mesoclimate zoning is based on the additional landscape characteristics of the territory. Micro-climate city mapping is based on land use function (residential, industrial, recreational, etc.) and on the architectural and planning situation (number of storeys and building density should be taken into consideration).
The MPAP maps are elaborated for four seasons and are updated every five years.
The meteoclimate data is used by a wide circle of users (design organisations, road services, power stations, industrial enterprises).
For further information please contact:
|Results||Analysis and evaluation methods||Data|
|inventory maps / cadastral register||Complex summarising / interpolation maps||reference area / resolution / scale||analogical / digital result||calculation steps and spatial depiction||main parameter||Other necessary data||Temporal distribution of data collection||survey unit scale|
|Mesoclimate zoning in accordance with meteorological potential of air pollution (MPAP).||Moscow City
|Analog map||Evaluation of quality districts||Intensity of air movement, precipitation, summarized solar radiation, annual dose of radiation.||Land-use map, density of rivers, landscape map.||Investigations of 1985-1995||1:50000|