12. Brandenburg Gate and Pariser Platz
Unter den Linden, the stately boulevard of electors and kings, ends at Berlin's genteel Pariser Platz and its heavily symbolic Brandenburg Gate (Carl Gotthard Langhans 1788-91).
13. Potsdamer Platz
One of Europe's busiest intersections before it was destroyed in World War II, this area became a "no man's land" during the years of Berlin's division. Today the striking silhouette of the new Potsdamer Platz
with its high-rise buildings symbolizes the new Berlin.
14. Historical buildings on Niederkirchnerstraße
The home of the Berlin House of Representatives (a) was designed by Friedrich Schulze and constructed between 1892 and 1897 as the Prussian State Parliament building. During the years of division, the building was the seat of the GDR
's State Planning Commission and a Ministry of State Security (Stasi) listening post. The Martin-Gropius-Bau (b), a former museum of applied art designed by Martin Gropius and Heino Schmieden in the style of the Italian High Renaissance and built from 1877 to 1881, today hosts changing exhibitions. The grounds of the "Topography of Terror" housed the command center of the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945: the Gestapo, the SS
, the SS Security Service, and the Reich Security Main Office from 1939. The exhibition documents their history and the National Socialist crimes that were set in motion here.
15. Checkpoint Charlie
Pictures of Checkpoint Charlie once went round the world. A place with great symbolic value in the history of the inner-German division, this former Allied checkpoint on the border of East and West Berlin is a must for tourists visiting Berlin, as is the Mauermuseum (Wall Museum).
16. Luisenstädtischer Kanal
Named after Queen Luise, the wife of Friedrich Wilhelm III, the canal
was designed by Peter Joseph Lenné and built as a waterway linking the Landwehrkanal and the Spree River. It was opened in 1852, but by 1926 Erwin Barth had half of it filled in again and landscaped because of the smell. When the Wall was built, both the canal and the Engelbecken pond were filled in completely. It has now been restored to the design from 1928.
17. East Side Gallery
On Mühlenstraße you can see the city center's longest surviving section of the Wall. In 1990, artists from all over the world decorated this remaining 1.3-kilometer section of the inner wall (Hinterlandmauer) with striking, eye-catching paintings. (East Side Gallery
, designed by Otto Strah, was built from 1894 to 1896 at the spot where the "excise wall" - a wooden barrier using a tree trunk (the "Oberbaum") to block the Spree River and collect a toll - stood from the beginning of the 18th century to the mid-19th century.
Berlin was built from material shipped in on boats. In order to reduce the traffic on the Spree River and facilitate the transport of building materials needed to help the city grow, a bypass canal was built between 1845 and 1850. The Landwehrkanal connects the lower Spree in Charlottenburg with the upper Spree at the Osthafen port. The river itself formed the border between East and West Berlin at the Humboldthafen port in Mitte and in Kreuzberg.
The Heidekampgraben runs from Treptower Park to the arboretum on Baumschulenweg; from Kiefholzstrasse to the Britzer Zweigkanal, it forms the border between Neukölln and Köpenick. In 2006, a green space with a wide bike and pedestrian path was laid out here along the former border strip.