Evaluation of Habitats from an Ornithological Point of View

Potential Value
Classes of average index values, according to Witt (1991), based on Berlin breeding-bird atlases
Class I: Bird habitats which are particularly rare in Berlin, and which provide suitable breeding habitats for declining or rare species 55_2 Class V: Bird habitats which are common in Berlin, and which provide habitats for few or no declining or rare species
yc012 I 1 Streams
8 Sedge marshes
9 Forest bogs
10 Moist meadows
11 Sparsely-wooded fields
12 Fresh meadows and pastures
16 Richly-wooded fields
yc019 II 2 Large shallow lakes
3 Small bodies of waters
4 Fishponds
7 Reed-beds
13 Riparian forests and bogs
15 Moist fallows and pre-wood stage areas
18 Open clear-cut areas and afforestations
39 Semi-dry meadows
40 Heaths
41 Dumps and slag-heaps
44 Airports
yc066 III 5 Sewage-treatment ponds
6 Vegetation-poor moist gravel quarries
14 Sewage farms
19 Alder swamps
20 Birch swamps
22 Softwood riparian forests
26 Conifer thickets and pole woods
27 Spruce forests
29 Pure pine woods
43 Dry gravel quarries
yc113 IV 23 Hardwood riparian forests
24 Oak/hornbeam forests
25 Beech forests
28 Pine forests rich in deciduous trees
30 Parks
33 Villages
37 City-center and old apartment-house areas
yc199 V 21 Deciduous tree thickets and pole woods
31 Cemeteries
32 Tree nurseries
34 Allotment gardens
35 Garden-apartment areas
36 New apartment-house areas
38 Industrial areas and railroad facilities
42 Ruderal areas


Areas with significant use changes since 1980

05.05.1 Value according to Red Data Book Species

Number of Red Data Book species per grid squared of the breeding-bird atlases
  1. Breeding birds are suitable as indicators for the evaluation of habitats. With the aid of a comparison of the bird species which should be encountered in various habitats (ideal value) and the actually attested bird species (actual value), areas with better or poorer living conditions for breeding-bird associations of the respective landscape type can be delimited.
  2. Only those bird species were considered which breed in Berlin, and to which an indicator-species function for certain habitat types could be attributed. According to the definition of Flade (1994), indicator species (Leitarten) are bird species which prefer a very few habitat types above all others. In Berlin, there are 118 such breeding-bird species.
  3. The frame of reference selected for the balance-sheet of breeding-bird species was the map grid of the breeding-bird atlases for East and West Berlin, which differed from one another (West Berlin: valid as of 1983; East Berlin: as of 1982). The sum of the indicator species occurring in all habitats within a grid square yields the ideal value. The actual value is determined with the aid of data from the breeding-bird atlases by adding all species occurring in a mapping unit. Thus, areas with low percentages indicate disturbed habitats.
    Some areas along the former border between East and West Berlin could not be represented due to the differences in the mapping system.
  4. The breeding-bird habitats were delimited on the basis of the above-named investigation by Flade (1994). There, the most important types of breeding-bird habitats for northern Germany were described.
    Together with the newly-defined area type "Airports," a total of 44 types with a minimum size of 5 ha were mapped. In the case of particularly valuable mini-habitats, such as bogs, gravel quarries or reed-beds, the minimum size was 1 ha.
    For areas whose use changed significantly after 1980 (the approximate date represented by the data in the breeding-bird atlases), no statements were made.
  5. In order to represent the differing potential value of urban biotopes from an avifaunistic point of view, the breeding-bird habitats were evaluated with the aid of index-values according to Bezzel (1980), on the basis of the Berlin breeding-bird atlases (Witt 1991). For all indicator-bird species of a habitat, the index-values A (degree of distribution in the city), B (presence in large areas), C (range density) and D (population development) were added and broken down into five value categories. The evaluation thus yields the potential value of an area. In practice, such an area may have a lower breeding-bird occurrence, due to unfavorable conditions (e.g., due to small size or to outside disturbances).
  6. Map 05.05.1 thus documents the value of each square of the map grid on the basis of the actual occurrence of Red Data Book species.
    It does so on the basis of the categories 1 (threatened with extinction), 2 (highly endangered), 3 (endangered) and P (potentially endangered).

Imprint of the Map

1 : 50 000

Published by:
Senate Department for Urban Development in Berlin and Environmental Protection
Public relations

Gruppe III A 3 (Ökologische Planungsgrundlagen) in Zusammenarbeit mit M.Flade, Dr. K. Witt, W. Otto und III A 2 (Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege)

III A 3, Peter Mittring

III A 3, Heiner Deja


für West-Berlin für Ost-Berlin

Data processing and map production:
Peter Mittring, Heike Fink

Colour scheme:

Data from:
Juni 1994

Based on the maps:
Digitale Arbeitskarte 1 : 50 000 des UIS Berlin;
Topographische Karte 1 : 50 000 (AV), Stand 1974/1982, Landesvermessungsamt Brandenburg;
Übersichtskarte von Berlin (West) 1 : 50 000, Stand 1988/1989, 1992/1994, Senatsverwaltung für Bau- und Wohnungswesen V - Vermessungswesen
Analoge Karte 1 : 50 000, Stand 1994, Fa. K’ARTAGNAN

Extended and revised edition 1995