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Berlin Environmental Atlas

06.07 Urban Structure / 06.08 Urban Structure - differentiated (Edition 2008)

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Map Description

Since the edition 2007 is based upon the geometry of the digital map of Berlin 1:5,000 (ISU5) it is not directly comparable with former editions (e.g. edition 2005) with the geometry of the digitized work map 1:50,000 (ISU50). Particularly with regard to railway- and traffic areas there is a difference in shares of the different structure types.

The thirteen structure types with predominantly residential use cover approximately half of the built-up area of Berlin.

Figure 2
Fig. 2: Shares of Structure Types with Predominantly Residential Use in their Total Area, in Percent
height of areas based on ISU5, segment block map

Excel
[Statistical base of Figure 2 is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

With 43 %, "low buildings with yards" accounts for by far the largest share of residential areas, followed by "fifties and later row" (11 %). "Block-edge" and "eighties and nineties row" have the smallest shares (1 %) (cf. Fig. 2).

In terms of the distribution among the Berlin boroughs, a different picture emerges, however (cf. Fig. 3).To be able to draw a comparison with other editions the figures are shown for the boroughs before the administrative reform from 2001.

Figure 3
Fig. 3: Shares of the Structure Types with Predominantly Residential Use in their Total Area, in the Berlin districts (Boroughs before the administrative reform from 2001), in Percent

Low buildings with yards (Structure type 9-13)
Postwar high-rise development (Structure type 6-8)
Twenties and thirties and fifties and later row development (Structure type 4-5)
late 19th-century block development (Structure type 1-3)

Excel
[Statistical base of Figure 3 is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

In Tiergarten, Kreuzberg and Schöneberg, a relatively high share of the residential area - approx. 80 % - is preserved as late 19th-century block development, much of which has, however, been altered massively. In the district of Wedding, late 19th-century block development and row development account for half the residential area. The district of Reinickendorf has the greatest share of row-type construction, followed by Spandau and Neukölln. The high-rise development of the postwar era occurs is no where to be found in Zehlendorf, but is an outstandingly high share of approx. 40 % in Lichtenberg, Marzahn, Höhenschönhausen and Hellersdorf. The low buildings with yards structure is entirely absent in the inner-city districts of Mitte, Friedrichshain, Kreuzberg and Schöneberg, while accounting for approx. three-fourths of the residential area in the outskirts districts Zehlendorf, Köpenick, Weissensee and Hellersdorf.

One finds the late 19th-century closed block development with wings and rear buildings, hardly changed since their origin, in large parts Charlottenburg and Wilmersdorf between the Lietzensee (Lake), Kurfürstendamm, Richard-Wagner-Strasse and Spandauer Damm. The narrow development with the typical courtyard structure has also survived to a large degree in Moabit and Wedding, in Friedrichshain between the City Rail Circle Line and Petersburger/Warschauer Strasse, as well as in the districts of Kreuzberg, Neukölln and Schöneberg between the corridors Neukölln Schiffahrtskanal (Ship Canal), Skalitzer Strasse, Gitschiner / Karl-Marx-Strasse, Gneisenaustrasse, Yorckstrasse and Potsdamer/Hauptstrasse.

One finds the late 19th-century closed development with few wings / rear buildings, including the section types "decorative/garden court" and "shed court," in the former suburbs of Berlin outside the City Rail Circle Line. This construction structure, too, has hardly changed since its origin. Large areas exist in Friedenau, Steglitz, Tempelhof, Friedrichshagen, Oberschöneweide, Karlshorst, Pankow, Niederschönhausen, Spandau and in the borough of Reinickendorf west of Provinzstrasse.

Large areas of late 19th-century closed block-edge development with major changes, which emerged as the result of war-time destruction and reconstruction, or of reconstruction with massive demolition of late 19th-century block development, are found within the City Rail Circle Line, particularly in Charlottenburg between Otto-Suhr-Allee and Bismarckstrasse and along Spandauer Damm, in Tiergarten around the Spree Bend and Invalidenstrasse, and south of the Landwehrkanal (Canal) around Potsdamer Strasse, in Wedding between the City Rail Line between Nordbahnhof, Gesundbrunnen and Bernauer Strasse, and in Friedrichshain west of the Warschauer / Petersburger Strasse corridor and, east of these streets, in the area of Frankfurter Allee. Also in the districts of Schöneberg and Wilmersdorf, there are many areas in which the typical late 19th-century courtyard structure was changed significantly by reconstruction and renovation.

In terms of the distribution among the existing Berlin boroughs, no different picture emerges. The shares are displaced for example in Mitte where the high share of row development in the former borough Wedding reduces the total share due to the low share from Tiergarten and former Mitte.

Figure 3a
Fig. 3a: Shares of the Structure Types with Predominantly Residential Use in their Total Area, in the Berlin districts, in Percent

Low buildings with yards (Structure type 9-13)
Postwar high-rise development (Structure type 6-8)
Twenties and thirties and fifties and later row development (Structure type 4-5)
late 19th-century block development (Structure type 1-3)

Excel
[Statistical base of Figure 3 is also available as Excel-File vor (MS-Excel is required).]

Fig. 4 shows the late 19th-century structure types "late 19th-century block development with wings and rear buildings" and "late 19th-century block development with major changes" differentiated according to their section types at the borough level for selected districts. In the eastern boroughs Mitte, Prenzlauer Berg and Friedrichshain, the section type "closed courtyard" does not appear, since it was recorded under the type "courtyard."

Figure 4
Fig. 4: Area Distribution of Various Late 19th-century Section Types, in ha

Excel
[Statistical base of Figure 4 is available Excel-Format (MS-Excel is required).]

In Prenzlauer Berg, Kreuzberg, Charlottenburg and Neukölln, very much late 19th-century development of the section types "closed courtyard" and "courtyard" is still preserved in its original form. The share of very dense development of the type "closed courtyard" is relatively high in Neukölln, Wedding and Kreuzberg. Late 19th-century preservation-oriented reconstruction, under which the original block structures were largely preserved, occurred most prominently in the borough of Kreuzberg. In the districts of Tiergarten, Friedrichshain and Wilmersdorf, war-damaged late 19th-century block development was largely eliminated and replaced, particularly by new buildings of the "postwar block-edge" type. "Late 19th-century development with major changes" and "reconstruction by de-coring" became increasingly common in the district of Wedding.

The twenties and thirties block-edge and row development type is found mainly outside the City Rail Circle Line. Frequently, the rows and large courts were erected in neighborhoods dominated by the "late 19th-century block-edge development with few wings and rear buildings" type, at the edge of the former suburbs of Berlin. They are as a rule connected to the City Rail and subway network.

The fifties and later row developments were erected mostly in the Berlin outskirts, outside the City Rail Circle Line. They were laid out on former open spaces (agriculture areas, etc.) without regard to existing transportation corridors or construction structures. Within the Circle Line, formerly built-up areas were replaced by row development. This includes large areas in Kreuzberg, Mitte and Friedrichshain, but isolated areas with row development on top of former late 19th-century block structure also exist in other inner-city districts.

One finds postwar high-rise development of the "unplanned reconstruction" type in the western parts within the City Rail Circle Line. Large areas of this type exist in Wilmersdorf around Bundesallee, in the district of Schöneberg in the area of Nollendorfplatz and Kleiststrasse, and in Kreuzberg between Wilhelmstrasse and Stresemannstrasse. Otherwise the high-rise development of the postwar era occurred within the City Rail Circle Line only in Kreuzberg, Mitte and Friedrichshain. Here smaller developments of the section type "high-rise" emerged. As a rule, the high-rise developments were erected outside the City Rail Circle Line. Such large complexes erected in West Berlin include Gropiusstadt in Neukölln, developments in Lichtenrade, Marienfelde, Lichterfelde and Spandau as well as the Märkisches Viertel in Reinickendorf. In East Berlin the largest developments are found in Hohenschönhausen, Marzahn, Hellersdorf and Lichtenberg.

The eighties and nineties block-edge and row development of the prefab concrete construction type occurs mainly in Hellersdorf and Marzahn. Smaller settlements were built in Köpenick and Hohenschönhausen.

The areas of the type compact, high urban living development of the nineties, realized usually in the framework of town-planning development projects, are located mainly at the edge of the eastern part of the city, as in Karow north and Buchholz. Some of the big housing projects like e.g. the Rummelsburger Bucht are situated also in the city center. The biggest project in the west part of the city is the water city Spandau.

The structure type urban living development with low density of the nineties with approximately 90 separate areas, also was erected normally in the east part and at the outskirts in Pankow or Treptow-Köpenick. However, you can find this type isolated also in Steglitz-Zehlendorf and Spandau.

Construction structures with yards are as a rule found only on the outskirts of town. These low, single-family and duplex houses with yards are to be found in the entire outskirts area.

The villa development with park-like gardens emerged mainly during the late 19th-century in scenically attractive areas; this has hardly changed since then. One finds larger areas of this type near the Grunewald Forest in Nikolassee, Zehlendorf, Dahlem and Grunewald, in Lichterfelde, near the Tegel Forest in Hermsdorf and Frohnau, along the Dahme at Grünau, and in the area the Müggelspree at Rahnsdorf.

Development with yards and semi-private re-greening, in which villa development and/or low single family houses are interspersed with larger rental and studio-apartment houses, occurs mainly in the southern urban area, particularly in the transitional areas between villas and single family housing in West Lichterfelde and Zehlendorf.

Village-like development is still preserved on the outskirts of town only in the old village cores; in the eastern boroughs more and larger village structures can generally be found.

One finds the development with predominantly commercial and service use frequently in the old central business districts of the various parts of town. This applies particularly to both the city center areas of West and East Berlin concentrated around the Kurfürstendamm/ Tauentzienstrasse and/or around the Alexanderplatz/ Friedrichstrasse.

Structure types with predominantly small business and industrial use are concentrated along waterways and railroad lines. Heavily built-up small business areas occur less frequently than small business areas with low development.

Development with predominantly public facilities and special use is to be found relatively evenly distributed throughout the urban area. Obviously, green and open spaces are more available in the outskirts area than in the inner city. As traffic areas, the airports Tempelhof and Tegel, and the right-of-ways of the City Rail lines stand out.

Detailed information about structure types which do not serve predominantly the residential use are found in the Umweltatlas Maps 06.01 "Actual Use of Built-up Areas" and 06.02 "Inventory of Green and Open Spaces".

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