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Berlin Environmental Atlas

01.01 Soil Associations (Edition 2013)

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Anthric Soil Associations (anthropogenically alterered soils)

SA 2420 [41] Necrosol + eutro-gleyic cambic hortisol (gleyic brown horticultural soil) + gleysol
(cemeteries on valley sand areas of medium and fine sands)
This soil association is comprised of valley sand soils. The use as cemeteries brings certain anthropogenic influences. Necrosols are defined as soils resulting from excavations for graves. The unused cemetery areas of valley sands still retain residual eutro-gleyic cambisols and gleysols. The longterm input of humus develops humic regosols, horti-gleyic cambisols, and hortisols (horticultural soils).

Necrosols + Eutro-gleyic Cambic Hortisol (gley brown horticultural soil) + Gleysol
Fig. 7: Necrosols + Eutro-gleyic Cambic Hortisol (gley brown horticultural soil) + Gleysol
(soils of cemeteries on valley sand areas of fine and medium sands)

Other anthropogenic uses have so strongly altered soils that once natural soils are extensively destroyed, or have been overlaid by other materials.

SA 2470 [49] Lithosol + calcic regosol + calcaric regosol (para-rendzina)
(railway tracks on aggraded and eroded surfaces)
This soil association includes soils used for railway facilities and railway stations. The trackbeds are of coarse gravel of various materials; the embankments are of sand, war and construction debris are also used as fill. Lithosols, loose lithosols, calcaric and calcic regosols are mainly formed, depending on the soil substrate.

Lithosol + Calcic Regosol + Calcaric Regosol
Fig. 8: Lithosol + Calcic Regosol + Calcaric Regosol
(soils of rail facilities on aggraded or eroded surfaces; Potsdamer Güterbahnhof (freight station))

SA 2490 [51] Loose lithosol (raw soil of loose material) + humic regosol + calcaric regosol (para-rendzina)
(dense inner city construction; not destroyed during Second World War; on aggraded surfaces)
This soil association characterizes soils within areas of uniform construction built before Second World War, undestroyed or only lightly damaged. The degree of sealing is high. Soils in the rear courtyards used currently or previously as yards are characterized by humic topsoils and can develop to humic regosols, hortisols, and humic calcaric regosols. Other back courtyard areas lightly covered by debris form loose lithosols (raw soils of loose material) and regosols.

Loose Lithosol (raw soil of loose material) + Humic Regosol + Calcaric Regosol
Fig. 9: Loose Lithosol (raw soil of loose material) + Humic Regosol + Calcaric Regosol
(soils of dense inner city construction; not destroyed in the Second World War; on aggraded surfaces)

SA 2500 [52] Loose lithosol (raw soil of loose material) + regosol + calcaric regosol (para-rendzina)
(inner city on aggradation/landfill)
This soil association describes soils of the previously densely constructed inner city, completely destroyed in Second World War. Most war debris remained where it fell. Many surfaces without buildings have a soil layer composed partially or completely of war debris. This thickness of this layer is from a few tenths of a meter up to 2 meters deep (cf. Grenzius 1987). Figure 10 shows how these surfaces develop lithosols and calcaric regosols. Surfaces without war debris develop lithosols and regosols.

Loose Lithosol (raw soil of loose material) + Regosol + Calcaric Regosol (para-rendzina)
Fig. 10: Loose Lithosol (raw soil of loose material) + Regosol + Calcaric Regosol (para-rendzina)
(soils of the inner city on aggradations)

The Concept Map of Soil Associations was prepared from existing data of the most various kinds. The map gives an overview of the near-natural and anthric soil associations to be expected, depending on the parent substrate, geomorphology or landscape segment, groundwater level, and use. The soil association category allows the derivation of main soil types, as well as other site characteristics such as aeration, rootability, field-moisture capacity, usable field-moisture capacity, nutrient storage capacity, and potential and effective cation exchange capacity as measure for nutrient storage capacity (cf. Grenzius 1987).

The aid of additional information, such as topographic maps and current groundwater level, and the soil association, enable the determination with a certain probability of soil types and ecological properties in a terrain without a map. Statements about gleysols or residual gleysols, and thus of moist or dry locations, can be made only under consideration of current groundwater levels.

Soils are a basic natural element and co-determinants of species diversity at the site. Seldom, unaltered, and only slightly altered soils are considered in the demarcation of protected areas.

The Map of Soil Associations is suitable for deriving site characteristics, and for making evaluations regarding soil protection and soil functions. In the map 01.06 of the environmental atlas soil-scientific characteristic values , in the map 01.12 a valuation of soil functions and in the map 01.11 criteria for the deduction of this functions are documented.

List of Soil Type Abbreviations Used in Figures 2 - 10
Tab. 7: List of Soil Type Abbreviations Used in Figures 2 - 10

Excel
[Table is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

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