Geoportal  

 

Berlin Environmental Atlas

01.01 Soil Associations (Edition 2013)

map view Text in Deutsch verfuegbar content    back forward

Soil Associations / Collective Soil Associations / Concept Soil Associations

The near-natural and anthric soil associations defined for West Berlin by Grenzius were transposed onto East Berlin with the aid of existing data bases, and analogical conclusions for comparable areas, such as geomorphology, use, water conditions, etc.. Problems occurred in areas where existing data bases did not enable clear classifications of soil associations based on analogical conclusions, or where combinations of uses and geomorphology appeared that were not considered or did not exist in West Berlin. Examples of these areas are plots once used for sewage farms, sinks in flat upland areas, and mapped podzolic soils of end morraines. Besides the soil associations applied in the Soil Association Map of West Berlin, the availability of appropriate mapping will be used to develop new soil associations. If there is insufficient information, then concept soil associations as well as collective soil associations will be developed. The soil associations used in the map have three different levels of differentiation and characterization:

  1. Soil Associations (SA) – Soil associations in dependence on geomorphology and use. These can be verified by field studies in the form of detail maps, key profiles, and soil profile studies.
  2. Collective Soil Associations (CSA) – These soil associations are collected because insufficient data material for East Berlin does not allow a differentiated categorization of individual soil associations.
  3. Concept Soil Associations – are soil associations which do not exist or which have not yet been verified in West Berlin. They are a combination of use and geomorphology, such as levelled sewage farms. They have not yet been verified by soil studies.

Classification of Soil Associations, Schematic Depiction of Procedure
Fig. 1: Classification of Soil Associations, Schematic Depiction of Procedure

Categorization of Soil Associations

The categorization of soil associations occurs in several processing steps:

  1. The actual use of a given area was found in the land use file. Each type of use category has a special model pattern for categorization of soil associations (cf. Fig. 1).
  2. Areas were defined as having mainly naturally developed soils or highly anthric soils (cf. Tab. 5). Land use and degree of sealing were used as criteria for the extent of anthropogenic alterations of soils. Other factors of determination were existing data material such as geological maps, cadastre of old contaminated sites, topographical maps of various ages, building damage maps, etc..
  3. Areas with hardly altered soils had no aggradations or erosion, and a degree of sealing of < 30 %, or a degree of sealing of < 25 % at new, large area construction areas. Soil associations here were categorized into near-natural soils according to the classification pattern in Table 6.
  4. Areas with a degree of sealing of ≥ 30 %, or ≥ 25 % t large-area new constructions, were classified as highly anthric soil associations, depending on the type of use and the type of construction (cf. Tab. 5).

Classification Guidelines for Soil Associations, in Dependence on Use Category and Degree of Sealing
Tab. 5: Classification Guidelines for Soil Associations, in Dependence on Use Category and Degree of Sealing

Excel
[Table is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

The classification rules given in the figures and tables are to be seen as general rules. The precise classification of soil associations is frequently not possible due to lack of information about current land use or the degree of sealing. This means numerous special decisions have to be made for individual cases. The classification of soil associations in residential areas considered the construction type; the historical land use was also significant. Residential settlements on locations previously used by industry were evaluated as industrial areas, e.g., the Thälmannpark residential unit. The evaluation of waste disposal sites, military locations, sewage farms, and other landfills and aggradations was made based on information such as maps, the Cadastre of Old Contaminated Sites, aerial photography, and expert opinions, etc..

The determination of near-natural soil associations was made according to the procedure depicted in Table 6, if great anthropogenic soil alterations could be ruled out.

Table 6 - enlarge
[Approx. 22 KB size.]

Tab. 6: Classification of Soil Associations of Natural Lithogenesis
(after Aey 1991)

Excel
[Table is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

Typical landscape segments with characteristic soil types, key profiles and the most important ecological properties exist for almost all soil associations.

The portrayal in the map gathered soil associations, concept soil associations, and collective soil associations into groups of uniform color. Geomorphic uniformity was decisive for the formation of near-natural soil association groups. Land use was decisive for the formation of anthric soil association groups.

Update of the Map in 2003

By reason of changes in the geometry of the basic map (splitting or merging of areas) and update of landuse and surface sealing the map had to be revised after a decade in 2003.

For all new areas the soil association of the existing map was adopted if a clear geometric mapping was possible, no major change of landuse took place and the degree of surface sealing were not far from that of the old soil association. In the case of a landuse change from a built-up to an open space landuse the old soil association was also maintained.

In the case of a landuse change from an open space landuse to a built-up landuse an accordant anthric soil association was allocated - as well as in the case of an increase surface sealing above the limit.

All other new areas were determined by expert opinion.

An essential completion compared to the map of soil associations from 1998 is the additional differentiation of the soil association BG 50(regosol + calcaric regosol + hortisol)and BG 50 a(calcaric regosol + loose lithosols + regosol), done in the meantime, according to the different parent substrates boulder sand, eolian sand, fluvial sand and periglacial loam. The mapping based on the Berlin and surroundings general geological map 1: 100 000 (GÜK 100). The number of units in the legend increased to 76 for this reason. In addition a for-digit number for the soil association was adopted. Under this number the soil association and her attributes are stored in the database.
The map at hand has a scale of 1 : 50,000 and is an overview map used by public planning agencies in determining goals and measures. Detailed statements about individual lots are not possible, for those kinds of statements require project-orientated detail maps.

Update of the Map in 2008

Due to the modified geometry of the map basis (segmentation and aggregation of areas - as of December 31st 2005) and as well to the updated survey of land use and surface sealing the map had to be revised and updated once again in 2008.

The method and procedure to record new areas, to detect the changes of land uses or surface sealing values exceeding class limits was identical to the way used in 2003.

One of these updates was the mapping of the soil association 1251 [c] (transitional bog - bog gley - podsol gley from the parent rock dead-ice kettle in ground moraine plateau), a oligotrophic transitional bog located in the Düppeler Forst area.

Further the findings of the following soil science mappings from the Geographic Institut Humbolt-University Berlin were included (Makki & Bíró 2008):

  • sewage farms Blankenfelde,
  • nature protection area and landscape protection area Johannisthal,
  • landscape protection area Tiefwerder Wiesen,
  • airport Tempelhof.

Update of the Map in 2012

Due to the modified geometry of the map basis (segmentation and aggregation of areas - as of December 31st 2010) and as well to the updated survey of land use and surface sealing the map had to be revised and updated once again in 2012.

The method and procedure to record new areas, to detect the changes of land uses or surface sealing values exceeding class limits was identical to the way used in 2003.

Further the findings of the following soil science mappings from the Geographic Institut Humbolt-University Berlin were included (Kissner 2010):

  • Königsheide.

map view Text in Deutsch verfuegbar content    back back

umweltatlas_logo_klein