Berlin Environmental Atlas

02.08 Fish Fauna (Edition 2014)

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Artificial Lakes

This category includes nine of the lakes sampled. Their size varies between 0.5 hectares (Körner Lake) and 15 hectares (Habermann Lake). In them, a total of 23 species of fish were verified; each lake had at least four (Lasszins Lake), and at most 11 (Butz Lake, Fauler Lake, Neuer Lake). The high numbers of fish species can be explained by stocking.

The BUGA bodies of water on the terrain of the former Federal Horticultural Exhibition (BUGA), the Eastern Lake, the Main Lake, the Southern Lake and the Iris Lake, were created for the scenic design of the park. They are artificially fed. Their water is relatively low in nutrients, and clear. Parts of the shore region have been near-naturally designed and planted, and are home to a large number of plant species. Thick growths of submersed makrophytes grow in the water. Although numerous species of fish, including bitterlings, were stocked in these bodies of water, only eight are attested. The bitterlings have not taken hold.

In the Great Tiergarten, there are a number of park bodies of water which are in some cases interconnected by trenches, of which two, Faule Lake and Neue Lake, are classed as artificial lakes due to their size. Their water is supplied from the Spree, but this connection is not passable for fish, so that the still very high number of fish species, 11, compared with 18 until 1993 and 15 until 2013, is still largely due to stocking. A connection passable for fish from the Tiergarten bodies of water to the Spree, proposed by Wolter & Vilcinskas in 1993 has not been realized to date.

The Kaulsdorf Lakes, located in the borough of Hellersdorf, are a very recently created recreation area containing 5 manmade lakes, of which Butz and Habermann Lakes are the two oldest. The latter was built in 1942 in connection with the construction of the Reich Railway’s Wuhlheide detour track. The Kies ("gravel") Lake was not excavated until 1970; with a depth of 1-2 m it has a very shallow connection with Habermann Lake. A total of 13 species of fish are attested in the Kaulsdorf Lakes. Pike still find suitable conditions for natural reproduction in the lakes. Since, as a result of the loss of spawning grounds and thus restricted possibilities for its preservation, this species is largely present in Berlin due to stocking, so that the few remaining spawning grounds are particularly protection-worthy.

The former gravel pit Lasszins Lake is a near-natural body of water, protected and fenced in due to its significance for birdlife. The shore structure consists of a broad reed-bed belt and trees. A thick growth of submersed macrophytes exists in the clear, relatively low-nutrient water. Here, too, particularly the pike has suitable living and reproduction conditions.

Retention Basins

Retention basins are artificially created bodies of water. As their name implies, they serve as catchment, collection and sedimentation basins for rain and surface water. The run-off from roofs, courts, streets and other sources collected in these basins is heavily contaminated by nutrients and pollutants, particularly PCBs. The toxic sediments washed in do not reach the open bodies of water, so that rain retention basins contribute to the often demanded reduction of various nutrient and pollutant immissions into other surface bodies of water; they were conceived and designed for this purpose.
Due to the pollution of the water and the sediments which accumulate in the fish, these bodies of water may not be fished.Since retention basins can of course not be settled by fish either, they should actually be fish-free. The opposite is the case. For example, four fish species were attested in the Krötenteich ("toad pond") in Rahnsdorf.

Unlike the other retention basins, the Krötenteich was built as a survival pit for the fish from the Fredersdorf Mill Stream, the lower stretches of which periodically dry out. More than 14,000 fish from 11 species were counted in the mass fishing of approx. 250 sqm area survival pit carried out a 1999 (Fredrich & Wolter. unpublished). This included one single stocked catfish, for which both the basin and the stream itself are completely unsuitable as a habitat.

Small Bodies of Water (ponds, tarns, meres, kettle-holes and the like)

Ponds are artificial, dischargeable bodies of water. The other bodies of water were usually naturally created as a result of landscape processes during the Ice Age, including "dead-ice" lakes, and kettle-holes, or as abandoned clay or gravel quarries, or peat cuts. These bodies of water are different from ponds due to the fact that they are generally not drainable. Since no pond management is carried out in Berlin and therefore the ponds are drained only in the course of rehabilitation work, both forms have been categorized together. No further distinctions of the small bodies of water are required, either, from an ichthyological point of view in the examination area.
Their quality of inflow waters, anthropogenic impairments (mainly by fish stocking), and their areas (usually less than 1 ha) are all similar and make them comparable. In a total of 48 small bodies of water examined in Berlin, a total of 24 species of fish were attested, 18 of them indigenous. The average number of species per small body of water is four, which is very high, considering their small sizes. Only a few examples of these bodies of water are to be introduced briefly in the following:

With 13 fish species, Jungfernheide Pond is the small body of water which is richest in species. All fish species present here are indigenous.

Four of the small bodies of water examined had no fish species whatever. These are the Enten Pool and Sperling Lake in the Borough of Mitte, the Small Torfstich (peat dig) in Hermsdorf and the Röte Pool in Marienfelde

Eckern Pool is in the middle of a park in Tempelhof. Its shore structures are monotonous, regularly-formed reinforcements. Two species of fish were verified here - in 2003, there were five - all of them euryecoid species.

The Karow ponds are four hypertrophic former fish ponds in the fields of the discontinued Buch sewage farms. The ponds, interconnected by pipes, were used for fish farming until 1990, and are today a nature protection area. Their very unspoiled shores are lined with extensive reed-bed stands. Between 2003 and 2013, fish sampling was carried out in the Insel Pond and the Weiden Pond, and a total of six species were attested.

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