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Berlin Environmental Atlas

06.01 Actual Use of Built-up Areas /
06.02 Inventory of Green and Open Spaces (Edtion 2002)

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Methodology

All information about actual land use is managed and processed at the ISU (Informationsystem for city and environment). This makes possible a graphic data processing of the factual data on basis of a uniform spatial reference system.

The spatial reference system is provided by a digital topographical basic map in a scale 1:50,000 - the ISU work map. It shows each individual statistical block, which is as a rule delimited by streets, with its block number. The numbering and delimitation of the blocks are carried by the State Statistical Office (Statistisches Landesamt). The statistical blocks of the digitized work map were updated as part of the processing of the actual land use for the western part of the city, and digitized for the eastern part of the city for the first time, in accordance with the latest information.

The smallest reference segment is formed by the block segments, which were delimited for different land use within a statistical block.

The uniform reference system makes possible a clear spatial identification of all factual data. Over a common key, which contains, among other things, borough, block and block segment numbers, these data are assigned to the spatial reference system.

Streets do not have any area in the ISU spatial reference system, and are thus digitally non-addressable. The course of the street is described by the boundaries of the individual statistical blocks.

The data on actual land use are stored in the use data base. This data base contains, in addition to a statement of the actual land use of a block and/or a block segment, further information about the area size, the area type, the sealing degree, the distribution of differently permeable surface covers, and also detailed information on mixed areas and vacant areas.

Update of the ISU Digitized Work Map

The Digitized Work Map 1:50000 (ISU50) and the corresponding data base (status 1990) were updated via using the above mentioned sources in the following steps:

After overlaying with the "Digital Map Berlin 1:5000" and the corresponding aerial photographies the block-segments which have changed were adopted using the style of portray of the map ISU 50. The actual codes of the State Statistical Office (2000) were also adopted.
According to the methodology of portraying uses and types of areas of the Environmental Atlas Berlin blocks were separated into block-segments. This happened when the current use of a block area could be separated into a residential or openspace type of use. These block-segments were documentated by a unique code in the GIS database and the statistical data base.
All together 3,885 new block/block-segments were created. These new blocks were checked with the map "Flächen mit gesamtstädtischen Veränderungspotenzialen" (areas with statistically important potential of change), and if necessary adapted.

Categories of the Map 06.01 "Actual Use of Built-up Areas"

The methodology for building the categories of uses is portrayed in detail in the text of the edition 1995 in the chapter methodology.

Residential Areas are characterized by housing and by the infrastructure required for living, such as shopping possibilities and service enterprises (laundries, restaurants, schools, etc.). The housing share in terms of floor-space is dominant, constituting 75-100%, compared with commercial, service and small business use. Residential areas include both the dense inner city development and the open settlement development at the edge of the city (cf. Map 06.07, SenStadtUm 1995).

The Mixed Area I areas are similar to the residential areas in appearance. However, the housing is more strongly interspersed with commercial and service enterprises (department stores, offices, etc.) and small businesses in lofts and courtyards. As a rule, housing predominates, with a share as high as 75%, but it may drop as low as 10%, with the rest being commercial and service enterprises and small businesses. The negative impact of this commercial use on neighboring residences is overall minimal. Large tour-restaurants in recreational areas have also been assigned to this category.

The Mixed Area II category is characterized by a high share of production-related enterprise, with the corresponding building complexes and warehouse/ storage areas. A third of the area, and no more than half, is generally used for housing; in East Berlin, this can drop to 10%. The appearance is that of a small business area. Major inconvenience for residents due to noise and emissions can be assumed.

In Core Areas, the office and business centers of commercial and service enterprises predominate, with 70-100% of the space. The residential share is very low, 30% at a maximum. Business and shopping streets are as a rule not categorized as core areas, since, for reasons of visual representation, entire blocks and not single streets along a block, were used as the basis for assignment to use categories (e.g., Wilmersdorfer Strasse). Especially in the Borough of Mitte, public, largely federal administrative buildings, embassies and other comparably-used building, which are as a rule assigned to the category "Public Facilities," may be assigned to the category "Core Areas," since these facilities are marked as core areas on the land use map of that borough (cf. the category "Public Facilities").

Characteristic of Small Business / Industrial Areas are large industrial buildings and warehouses and storage areas. The housing share is subordinate, with 30% at a maximum. Inconvenience due to noise and emissions can be rated very high. The category Small Business / Industrial Area also includes railway freight yards and small business areas on railway land, as well as clearly small business-used waterside areas (shipyards, boatyards, etc.).

Sites of the category Public Facilities Areas include cultural, university and research, health care, administrative, postal and law-enforcement facilities, and also day care centers, playgrounds, schools, sports facilities, youth centers and retirement homes, and religious institutions such as churches. Special Use Areas are built-up areas with a specific purpose, such as the Olympic Stadium and the Messegelände (trade fair complex).

The sites of the category Utilities Areas include power, gas, water and sewage-treatment plants, facilities of the sanitation department and the public transportation system, including railway stations and port facilities, central market halls (the Central Market, the Flower Market, the slaughterhouse) and other service facilities, such as broadcasting facilities.

The Traffic Areas include the areas required for truck and rail service, other than public roadways. Traffic islands and airports also count as Traffic Areas. Parking lots and parking garages are only recorded as Traffic Areas if they occupy an entire block. Parking lots which exceed the minimum ascertainment limit of 1 ha, but which are within one statistical block, and connected with other uses, such as residential areas, have not been delimited through the definition of a corresponding segment formation, but have rather been assigned to the dominant use category. The category "Traffic Area" also includes track-beds and railyards of the city and long-distance railways, and also those portions of the subway running outside the tunnels in open right-of-ways or as elevated railways, and also streetcar-related areas. Median strips are assigned to the "Traffic Area" category if their use justifies their categorization as motor-vehicle parking. Freight yards and commercial facilities on railway land are not classified as Traffic Areas (cf. the category "Small Business Areas").

The Weekend Cottage Areas differ hardly at all in appearance from the Allotment-Garden or Residential Area. Those areas assigned to this category in the 1985 Umweltatlas were retained; for the eastern boroughs, areas were assigned to the category "Weekend Cottage Area" only if they were neither residential nor allotment-garden areas (cf. also use category "Allotment Gardens" in Map 06.02, "Inventory of Green and Open Spaces").

Areas classified as Construction Site were those with a typical construction site character: as a rule open areas with soil disturbed by construction vehicles. Often, the foundations or the first stories are recognizable.

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