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Berlin Environmental Atlas

05.06. Nature Reserves and Landscape Reserves (Edition 1995)

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Brandenburg

In Brandenburg, 2.1% of the state area is certified as NSGs, and 19.1% as LSGs (as of October 1994). Further areas are under temporary safeguarding and/or in the protection implementation procedure, after the conclusion of which the share of the NSG in the state area will climb to 6.6%, and of the LSG to 33%. In the part of Brandenburg shown, there are five established NSGs and LSGs. The oldest, the NSG "Sacrower See und Königswald - Sacrow Lake and King's Forest" and the LSG "Erpetal," were declared as protected areas as early as 1938. In the last years, the protected status implementation of numerous areas was begun in Brandenburg. Presently, 20 NSGs and 9 LSGs are temporarily safeguarded or are undergoing the protected status implementation process in the Berlin area (cf. Tab. 6 and Tab. 7).

Table 6
Tab. 6: Nature Reserves of Brandenburg in the Countryside Surrounding Berlin (as of March 1995)

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Table 7
Tab. 7: Landscape Reserves of Brandenburg in the Countryside Surrounding Berlin (as of March 1995)

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Some areas, such as the future NSG "Eichwerder Moorwiesen - Eichwerder Bog Meadows" and the LSG "Nauen-Brieselang-Krämer" border directly on protected areas in Berlin ("Tegel Creek" / "Fen Meadows at Tegel Creek," or "Eiskeller" / "Spandau Forest"), creating a joint biotope between Berlin and its surrounding countryside. A further step toward an interlocking of Berlin and Brandenburg is the planned certification of a common nature park. The Barnim Nature Park would include both established and future NSGs and LSGs in both states. These would include, among others, the "Buch Forest" and the "Karow Ponds" in Berlin, and the "Schönerlinde Ponds" and parts the "West Barnim and Tegel Creek" LSG in Brandenburg.

The former military training areas in Brandenburg offer habitats to a multitude of endangered plant and animal species. Here, extensive heath and dune landscapes of national significance have been able to develop. Thus, the open sand landscapes and sand heaths on Brandenburg's military training grounds cover approx. 1.4% of the state's area, and Calluna heaths approx. 0.4% (cf. Beutler 1993). Near Berlin, a unique natural resource has been able to develop on the former Döberitz military training area. In 1991 large parts of this area were temporarily safeguarded, and are presently undergoing protected status implementation process for the NSG "Döberitzer Heide - Döberitz Heath," with an area of roughly 3,387 ha. Due to approx. 95 years of permanent, exclusively military use of the area (the first military maneuvers were held in 1713), there have been repeated fires, and hence, nutrient impoverishment for large areas. In this way, and also due to the lack of forestry practice, various succession stages could develop on the military training area over the last decades. On the geomorphologically richly structured areas, abundant, mutually networked habitats such as open lands, dry meadows, heaths, moist and fresh meadows, bogs, alder swamps, various pre-forest stages and relatively young mixed forest stocks of predominantly oak and birch (on sandy sites, also pine) developed. Up to now, 601 plant species (of which approx. one quarter are Red Data Book species) and 124 nesting bird species (including snipe, kingfisher, hoopoe and nightjar) have been attested on the military training area. The Döberitz military training area is to become a major federal conservation project as part of the subsidy program of the Federal Research Institute for Conservation and Landscape Ecology for the establishment and safeguarding of elements of nature and the landscape worthy of protection with comprehensive national significance (cf. Schoknecht 1993).

The following biotopes legally protected under § 32 (and/or § 31) BbgNatSchG are found in the countryside surrounding Berlin (cf. Tab. 8).

Table 8
Tab. 8: Brandenburg Biotope Types in the Countryside Surrounding Berlin (according to Zimmermann 1994a)

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In Brandenburg, 39 landscape plans were undergoing processing by the responsible communities in June 1995 (72 were in preparation), and 40 landscape plans had been submitted in draft form. The landscape plans "Falkensee, city" and "Schönwalde," which border directly on Berlin, as well as the landscape plans "Rangsdorf," "Bloischdorf," "Pritzwalk, city" and parts of "Forst, city" have already been certified (cf. Fig. 2).

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