Berlin Environmental Atlas

05.06. Nature Reserves and Landscape Reserves (Edition 1995)

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Nature monuments

The Nature Monuments in Berlin consist for the most part of old, rare or valuable trees or groups of trees (especially linden and oak), whereby the main points of concentration are in the boroughs of Spandau and Neukölln. The presumably oldest living ND of Berlin is an over 800-year-old durmast oak (Quercus petraea) - "fat Mary" - in the Tegel palace gardens, which has been protected as an ND since 1939. Further, relatively frequently occurring single creations of nature are the glacial boulders which have been established as NDs. The trees and glacial boulders were certified as ND in 1993 under an Umbrella Ordinance of Single Objects. In Berlin, there are also so-called large-scale nature monuments, which may not be larger than 5 ha. Often, these are pools, which, as remainders of the formerly numerous small bodies of waters and as characteristic landscape elements of Berlin, provide habitats to many plants and animals and contribute to the biotope network. In the borough of Neukölln, there are especially many pools under the protected status of Nature Monument, including the "Roetepfuhl," the "Klarpfuhl," the "Lolopfuhl," the "Krugpfuhl," the "Papenpfuhl," the "Katzenpfuhl," "Priesterpfuhl," the "Pool at Neudeck Weg," and the "Rohrpfuhl." Another extensive ND is the "Wedding Dune," a relic of a landscape element once widespread in Berlin. In the eastern boroughs of the city, no nature monuments presently exist. Before the union, East Berlin had 126 large-scale nature monuments; 661 trees or groups of trees and 3 glacial boulders were certified as nature monuments (FND). There were 252 NDs in the borough of Pankow alone. After an examination of the protection-worthiness of these objects, an amendment is planned to the Nature Monuments Ordinance which has been in effect for the western part of the city since 1993.

Table 4 - Dummy
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Tab. 4: Nature Monuments in Berlin (as of April 1995)

[Table is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

§ 30a Biotopes

One focus of conservation in Berlin is the preservation of a landscape characterized by bodies of water and wooded areas and the remainders the near-natural vegetation. These can be preserved especially in the outer boroughs. Here, one also finds the majority of the total of 565 Biotopes protected under § 30a NatSchGBln. The biotopes certified in Berlin are listed in Table 5.

Tab. 5: § 30a Biotopes in Berlin (as of July 1995)
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Tab. 5: § 30a Biotopes in Berlin (as of July 1995)

[Table is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

Reed-beds constitute the greater part of the protected biotopes in Berlin. All reed-beds in bodies of water are protected, as are dry-land reed-beds, if the majority of the plant species are typical reed species, and/or if one or several typical species cover more than 50% of the vegetation-covered area (cf. Hemeier and Steinlein 1995). Reed stocks protected under § 30a NatSchGBln, exist, for instance, on the islands Scharfenberg, Baumwerder and Valentinswerder in Tegel Lake, on the south and west banks of the Great Müggelsee Lake, and also at numerous small body of waters in the city.

In the center of town there are only a few § 30a biotopes to be found, due to the strong utilization pressure. Here, especially rough meadows have been able to survive and/or develop. Rough meadows are the the second-most common §30a NatSchGBln biotope type encountered in Berlin. They occur almost exclusively as sandy dry meadows. Ruderal semi-dry meadows and stands dominated by colonial bent grass (Agrostis tenuis) do not fall under this protection (exception: stocks bordering directly on protected sandy dry meadow) (cf. Hemeier and Steinlein 1995). In the inner city, rough meadows are shown on railroad embankments, the former border strip and other vacant areas. Some remainders also appear in parks, such as Prenzlauer Berg Public Park. In addition, they occur on airports (Tegel, Tempelhof and Gatow Airports and the former Johannisthal airfield), in gravel and sand quarries (Seddinberg sand quarry) and in the Berlin forests (Eiskeller, Jungfernheide Heath, Wuhlheide Heath). Also some roof areas covered with sandy dry meadows (Wuhlheide and Friedrichshagen Water Works, Ökowerk Teufelssee) were covered.

Of the protected near-natural forest lands in Berlin, the pine-oak forests are the most common. Distinctive pine-oak forests are found in almost all wooded areas of the Berlin forests, particularly in the Grunewald Forest and in Köpenick. Not protected are, among others, stocks with a herbaceous layer characterized by nitrophilous species or with none at all, with dominant appearance of the black cherry (Prunus serotina) in the shrub layer, and wavy hairgrass-pine forests (cf. Hemeier and Steinlein 1995). Biotopes protected under § 30 which occur very rarely in Berlin include open inland dunes, dwarf-shrub heaths, swamp forests, fontinal areas, and also near-natural and non-reinforced creek and river segments.

The biotopes protected under § 30a NatSchGBln show the points of emphasis for future protected area certifications. An example are the "Vollkropfwiesen (meadows)" in the borough of Köpenick, parts of which were an FND during the East German period. There, there are areas with moist meadows, reed-beds and rough meadows. There were 209 plant species ascertained, of which 14 were on the Red Data Book.

Landscape plans

In Berlin, there are presently four established Landscape Plans: XX-L-4 Flughafensee - Airport Lake, IX-L-1/1A Grunewaldseenkette (Lake Chain), XII-L-3 Gärtner/Kaulbach Strasse, XIV-L-4 St.-Jakobi-Kirchhof II (churchyard). In these, protection as well as care and development measures are legally stipulated for nature and the landscape. Presently 116 landscape plans are found in the process prescribed under NatSchGBln (cf. Fig. 2).

Figure 2 - Dummy
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Fig. 2: General Map of the Landscape Plans of Berlin (as of December 1994) and Adjacent Parts of Brandenburg (as of June 1995)

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