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Berlin Environmental Atlas

05.06. Nature Reserves and Landscape Reserves (Edition 1995)

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Berlin

Nature reserves

In Berlin there are presently 29 Nature Reserves, which cover 1.4% (West: 0.7%, East: 3.1%) of the urban area (1,237 ha). A major part of the Berlin NSGs lies within the LSG-certified forests. The nature reserves in the former West Berlin include such areas as the " Fliesswiese Ruhleben - Ruhleben Creek Meadow," the "Bäkewiese - Bäke Meadow" grounds, or the "Teufelsbruch und Nebenmoore - Devils Swamp and Nearby Bogs" and the "Grosser und Kleiner Rohrpfuhl - Great and Little Reed Pool" areas in the Spandau Forest. The Havel islands "Imchen" and "Pfaueninsel - Peacock Island" are legally protected, the latter since 1941. In the eastern boroughs, the "Karower Teiche - Karow Ponds," the "Niedermoorwiesen am Tegeler Fliess - Fen Meadows at Tegel Creek" and the "Fauler See - Stale Lake" were proclaimed as NSGs in 1994. In 1995, eight further areas followed.

An emphasis of protected area certification is in Köpenick. Here are found the largest nature reserves in Berlin - the nature reserves "Krumme Laake/Pelzlaake," "Gosener Wiesen und Seddinsee - Gosen Meadows and Seddin Lake (northeastern part)" and "Wilhelmshagen-Woltersdorfer Dünenzug - Wilhelmshagen-Woltersdorf Dunes)." These three areas take in altogether almost 900 ha, or over 50% of the NSG. After conclusion of the protected area certifications (as of April 1995), the NSG share of Berlin's area will reach 1.9% (cf. Tab. 1).

Table 1 - Dummy
[Approx. 18 KB size.]

Tab. 1: Nature Reserves in Berlin (as of April 1995)

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[Table is also available as Excel-File (MS-Excel is required).]

The last bogs still existing in Berlin are remainders of the original vegetation. These include bogs in the Grunewald Forest, which are under protection as NSGs, such as the "Barssee and Pechsee Lakes," "Teufelsfenn," "Postfenn," "Riemeisterfenn" and "Hundekehlefenn." A typical area is the NSG "Barssee and Pechsee Lakes." The Pechsee Lake emerged at the end of the Vistula glaciation and lies in a valley in western Grunewald Forest. The northern offshoot area has undergone bog formation, the remaining area is water. The Pechsee Lake, still classified as nutrient-poor as recently as 50 years ago, developed into a more nutrient-rich site by the middle of the 80's, in the area of the nearby quaking meadows. Associated with this development was the impoverishment of the herbaceous layer in the forest area, which was displaced in the northern part by the black cherry (Prunus serotina). The primary cause for the vegetation changes the Grunewald bogs is the strong lowering of the groundwater level due to the drinking water production, so that many bogs no longer have any groundwater connection. Despite the many negative changes, the Pechsee Lake is one of the last mesotrophic lakes in Berlin. In the "Barssee and Pechsee Lakes" NSG, a multitude of rare and endangered plant species occur. Floral particularities of this area include the mud-sedge (Carex limosa) and the white-beak sedge (Rhynchospora alba). In addition to the rare plant species, there also exist numerous animal species which are adjusted to the specific conditions. The area provides a habitat for such remarkable species as the water spider (Argyroneta aquatica), the raft spider (Dolomedes fimbriatus) and the ground beetle Pterostrichus aterrimus. The Barssee Lake is the most important spawning body of water for the pointed-nose frog (Rana arvalis) and the common toad (Bufo bufo) in West Berlin (cf. SenStadtUm 1991).

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