Urban development plan Supply & Disposal 1999

Explanations to the maps

General remarks

The maps give a general idea of the main urban networks for the individual kinds of supply and disposal, the cross linking of the factories, facilities and stations, as well as the integration of Berlin into supra-regional interconnections. In co-ordination with the utility companies the maps were drawn up to represent sites relevant for urban planning, showing the main networks, supply areas and catchment areas etc. The maps themselves are presented in the 1: 50.000 scale.

The locations and areas are shown in block-sharp and boundary-sharp manner. According to the purpose of the urban development planning, the mains and pipes are assigned as exactly as possible to roads, blocks and facility locations. But saying that the maps are not accurate enough to derive a precise position.

The survey maps and partial maps of the UDP supply and disposal do not contain any information about pipe cross-sections and the connection capabilities of plots of lands (allotments), areas and sub-areas, onto the networks and facilities of the technical infrastructure. The respective utility companies are responsible for and have to be consulted over content related issues pertaining to supply of resources and waste disposal.

The representation of the topography for the Brandenburg surrounding area of Berlin is limited to waters, lakes, railway lines, main roads and motorways. Built up areas including rural communities, districts and the municipality boundaries are represented in a simplified way.

This is to help orientation and general localisation of technical infrastructure plants. In contrast with the printed versions, the abundance of optical information on the maps of Internet versions leads to a partial restriction of the rapid intuitive grasp of the information. In order to counteract this tendency, suitable display areas are defined according to the supply type. The maps are darkened outside the boundaries of the display areas with translucent coverings.

The display areas shown can be town districts, trade centres or residential areas etc. The type is indicated in the key at the edge of the map.

Map heat supply

The map shows areas of the heat supply essential for the urban development:
  • Areas provided with district heating - at the end of 1996 - (colour: magenta)
  • Potential areas for modern heat supply of buildings (colours brown and ochre).

These areas are on the one hand city districts with a high density of coal heating and on the other hand comprise areas of high density using old oil heating systems. Both groups require a changeover to more modern heating systems, which will prove more economical and efficient, causing less environmental pollution.

In addition the priority area for air purity is shown, which contains the entire inner city and its border zone according to the land use plan. Here is also shown a relief from heat loss of buildings, travel etc. very urgent.

Areas of district heating

In Berlin approximately a third of all heated floor space in residential and non-residential buildings is supplied with district heating. In 1996 565.000 flats were heated through this system with a further 20 Mio. m² in non-residential buildings.

In the eastern part of Berlin the district heating supply was developed to a great extent since the 50s in connection with new building projects. This occurred first of all, in the city centre, in Friedrichshain and Lichtenberg and then continued to be developed in the large-size residential areas of Marzahn, Hellersdorf and Hohenschönhausen. The "central district heating system" is operated nowadays by the Bewag, using a connected network with heating plants at Klingenberg and Lichtenberg. This is complemented by a new combined heat power station in Mitte, as well as the heating station Scharnhorststraße and this altogether supplies approx. 285.000 flats.

Further "decentralised" district heating systems have been developed since 1990 in the districts Buch and in parts of Buchholz, Köpenick, Treptow, Adlershof. This has been implemented partly by the use of new block heating stations.

In the western part of Berlin since the 1960`s Bewag has built mainly from older district heating installations a central heating system, which supplies densely built-up sub districts of the western inner city and parts of Steglitz, Zehlendorf with the Free University. This central heating system is fed by the big heating plants at Reuter West, Reuter, Charlottenburg, Moabit, Lichterfelde and Wilmersdorf. This comprised in 1996 approx. 280.000 flats and more than 6 Mio. m² floor space both in commercial buildings and public facilities.

Since the 20`s an isolated network exists around the Neukölln district heating station. This was added to from 1985 onwards with the decentralised district heating system for the Märkische Viertel (Quarter) in Reinickendorf and - with the combined heat power station in Rudow - for the Gropiusstadt in Neukölln. Since the middle of the 80`s there were built a series of "near heat networks" using there own heating stations and block heating plants operated by different companies.

On the map are shown the areas of the city developed for district heating supply. This also includes the large combined heat power and heating stations as well as the main paths of the pipeline networks (pipes with 200 up to 800 mm diameters).

District heating pipelines are lying usually in channels below the ground or lie directly in the street room. In the eastern part of Berlin there were 60km of heating pipelines laid down before 1990 above the surface as aerial pipelines. These aerial pipelines are conspicuous in the townscape, with large diameters. They are clearly marked on the map.

The different coverage areas of the Bewag and the networks of the other operational companies are marked by reverse hachures.

The district heating supply of the urban development areas consisting of Potsdamer Platz, government quarter, Rummelsburger Bucht, Adlershof, Eldenaer Straße and the Wasserstadt Spandau are planned to be operated by different companies. These districts are shown on the map with horizontal hachure.

Potential areas suitable for modern heat supply of buildings

Parts of the town which are not connected with district heating systems or are not currently equipped with collective heating and local heat systems on natural gas basis respectively are designated as "potentials" here.

These are mainly parts of town with a high usage of coal heating in flats and non residential buildings. The equipment of the existing buildings with respect to the kinds of heating and energy used have developed very differently under the differing environments associated with East and West Berlin.

In the western part of Berlin the areas not supplied with district heating are mainly equipped with oil-fired heating (50 - 90%). This is however contrasted in many sub-areas of the city, particularly in the outskirts with open housing, where gas central heating and gas-driven local heat systems widely prevail.

Coal heating is barely used in the outskirts of West Berlin. However one has still to reckon with heating by oven in the order of 10% to a maximum of 30% in the densely built-up old housing areas of the inner city, including eastern and southern Kreuzberg, Neukölln, Wedding and to a smaller extent in the old housing areas of Schöneberg, Charlottenburg, Moabit, Reinickendorf, Spandauer Neustadt.

In the eastern part of Berlin in areas that are not connected with the district heating more than 200.000 flats (30%) and at least 10 Mio. m² floor space in non residential buildings are already equipped with gas central-heating. However, 160.000 flats and more than 3 Mio. m² of non residential floor space are still heated by single coal stoves with brown coal.

There is a concentration of housing areas with up to 50% coal heating located in the city with old closed housing in Prenzlauer Berg, Friedrichshain, in parts of Mitte and in Lichtenberg. The old building areas of Pankow, Weißensee, Treptow and Köpenick have coal heating still in the order of about 30% of the residential housing.

Moreover many single-family houses and flats in the residential areas on the outskirts of Berlin are still equipped with coal heating. These areas can be separated out as problem areas relating to heating on the basis of combined small-scale counts of building, statistics of building activity, urban planning data for the housing structure etc.

For the eastern part of the city:
a) closed old housing with high density (as a rule building age before 1918, GFZ (floor space number - relative share of build up face within a plot) >1,5) with prevailing coal heating, partly greater 50%
b) closed housing with high density (as a rule building age before 1960, GFZ (floor space number - relative share of build up face within a plot) > 1,2) with high share of coal heating of 3% to a maximum of 50%
c) open housing with medium and high density (old and new buildings, GFZ (floor space number - relative share of build up face within a plot) < 1,0) with high share of coal heating of 10% to a maximum of 30%.

For the western part of the city:
d) closed old housing with high density (old and new buildings, GFZ (floor space number - relative share of build up face within a plot)>1,5) with prevailing oil heating (>50%, mostly central and block heating)
e) closed housing with high density (building age predominantly before 1918, GFZ (floor space number - relative share of build up face within a plot)>1,5)with high share of oil heating (30% - 50%) as well as still considerable share of coal stove heating (10-30%).

These problem areas represent potential areas for modern heating supply of buildings. This is specially connected with projects and proposals of the urban development planning. The areas of the city that are not problem-relevant are not shown on the map. The first reason for this is that they are predominately equipped already with modern heating systems including central heating using both natural gas and oil and secondly they include commercial and industrial areas with specific demands and conditions for heating.