Urban development plan Supply & Disposal 1999

Explanations to the maps

General remarks

The maps give a general idea of the main urban networks for the individual kinds of supply and disposal, the cross linking of the factories, facilities and stations, as well as the integration of Berlin into supra-regional interconnections. In co-ordination with the utility companies the maps were drawn up to represent sites relevant for urban planning, showing the main networks, supply areas and catchment areas etc. The maps themselves are presented in the 1: 50.000 scale.

The locations and areas are shown in block-sharp and boundary-sharp manner. According to the purpose of the urban development planning, the mains and pipes are assigned as exactly as possible to roads, blocks and facility locations. But saying that the maps are not accurate enough to derive a precise position.

The survey maps and partial maps of the UDP supply and disposal do not contain any information about pipe cross-sections and the connection capabilities of plots of lands (allotments), areas and sub-areas, onto the networks and facilities of the technical infrastructure. The respective utility companies are responsible for and have to be consulted over content related issues pertaining to supply of resources and waste disposal.

The representation of the topography for the Brandenburg surrounding area of Berlin is limited to waters, lakes, railway lines, main roads and motorways. Built up areas including rural communities, districts and the municipality boundaries are represented in a simplified way.

This is to help orientation and general localisation of technical infrastructure plants. In contrast with the printed versions, the abundance of optical information on the maps of Internet versions leads to a partial restriction of the rapid intuitive grasp of the information. In order to counteract this tendency, suitable display areas are defined according to the supply type. The maps are darkened outside the boundaries of the display areas with translucent coverings.

The display areas shown can be town districts, trade centres or residential areas etc. The type is indicated in the key at the edge of the map.

Map rainwater

The map shows the canalisation, rainwater treatment areas and sites of the rainwater drainage important for the whole city.

The rainwater drains off into the combined sewer system of the inner city area. This includes the districts Mitte, Tiergarten, Wedding, Prenzlauer Berg, Friedrichshain, Kreuzberg, Charlottenburg, Schöneberg and in some parts of Wilmersdorf, Neukölln and Spandau. This system was built from 1873 onwards according to plans of James Hobrecht.

The combined sewer system is shown on the map in yellow. In the case of the combined sewer system rain and waste water flow into a shared sewer network (length of the pipelines in total almost 1.900 km) and then onwards using the gradient to the pumping stations.

The locations of the 6 main pump stations and of the 11 connection pump stations mark the deepest points of the sewerage fields. From these the "mixed water" is transported through penstocks to the sewage plants, where the water is treated (see also the waste water map).

In addition to this, 16 rainwater pump stations and several booster pump stations (intermediate pump stations) carry rainwater from deep-lying parts of the network into the combined sewer system by using tunnels under the streets and underpasses.

Rain spillways: In order to hydraulically protect the partial networks of the combined sewer system and their pumping stations in cases of heavy rainfall causing oversized water volumes, rainwater spillways have been built into the network at approx. 160 critical places. The overflowing rainfall and waste water mixture ( ratio 5:1 ) is carried through rainwater spillway canals using the shortest way to the flow waters (canals, rivers and lakes etc.).

On the map are shown more than 100 big spillway canals with diameters of more than 1 m. Many of them have lengths of several kilometres. The largest one has a cross section of 4,5 x 3 m and empties into the Spree north of the Friedrichsbridge in the district Mitte. From these canals flow considerable volumes of mixed water during the annual "heavy rain events" (estimated: 20-30) into the intra-urban flow waters. Which are then critically overloaded with dirt and pollutants.

Rainwater spillway basins: To avoid such overflows there were built in the 80`s in the western part of the city 9 rainwater spillway basins at or in the near of the sewage pump stations. There are further installations planned.

Buffer channels are used to delay through buffering the drainage of the rain and mixed water. The first buffer channel was finished in 1994 in the vicinity of the combined sewer system at Potsdamer Platz. Further channels are planned in Kreuzberg, Lichtenberg and in Treptow.

The separate system of rainwater canalisation: Separate sewer systems were installed from 1890 onward for sewage and rain water in the boundary zone of the city and in the outskirts of Berlin, which corresponds to around a 3/4 of the built-up city area. The drainage from buildings, streets and sealed plots of land is collected from the rainwater canalisation and transferred directly by downward gradients into the flow waters, artificial basins and ponds respectively.

The rainwater channels have a length of more than 3.000 km and lead to the receiving waters at more than 700 points. The Teltowkanal transports all by itself about 1/3 of the drained rainwater of the whole city. For the sake of the clarity there are shown on the map only the larger of the rain channels, with inside diameters greater than 400 mm in the city and greater than 250 mm for the outskirts.

The massive rain canalisation drains with diameters greater than 1,7 m are clearly marked on the map. The rain canalisation drains are put under strain in cases of heavy rainfall particularly by sewage and pollutants. The critical discharge points at the shipping channels, Oberspree, Dahme and Havel are indicated on the map by arrows.

Rainwater is buffered in cases of heavy rainfall into special detention basins. This is to delay the drainage and to enable particles of dirt to settle out. Almost 100 detention basins built into the rain canalisation are distributed across the whole city area. They are especially abundant in the former development areas of Hohenschönhausen, Marzahn and Hellersdorf. There are specific high water detention basins in Wedding by the river Panke and in Reinickendorf by the Packerei ditch.

Rain water clarification basins are used mainly for the cleansing of polluted rainwater, however, they also discharge the waters lying below the basins by delayed drainage. Such clarification basins were installed in the 70`s, particularly by the lakes at Grunewald, Wannsee and by the lake Tegeler See.

Natural troughs and artificial basins with water permeable subsoil (grit and sand) serve as rain infiltration galleries. In these, weakly polluted rainwater can be discharged in order to seep through thus enriching the groundwater. Infiltration galleries have been installed particularly in Zehlendorf, Wilmersdorf, Spandau, Charlottenburg and in the part of Reinickendorf called Frohnau, as well as isolated basins in the western and in the eastern outskirts in Mahlsdorf for reasons pertaining to the topographical conditions and infiltration capability of the subsoil . Currently some standing waters have the function of rain infiltration galleries and rain detention basins for example the Pücklerteich (pool) in the Grunewald. There exists here a conflict with the rules and regulations of the water law, which prohibits such technical functions for natural water bodies (body of water class 2). On the map the locations of the existing basins are shown without particular reference to possible legal flash points.

The Berlin Water Companies (name of the Berlin water supply company) and the water authority have laid plans for an increased number of rainwater treatment plants with integrated functions including retention, pre-cleansing, clarification and infiltration. This is to substantially relieve the strain in the coming years from the dirt and pollutants on the large and small water flows, as well as ponds, sinks and infiltration basins.

On the map there are shown according to the current state of planning about 90 suitable locations for new rainwater treatment plants. These are predominantly in the eastern part of the city including Pankow/Weißensee, Marzahn, Hellersdorf, Wuhletal and at the inlets of big rain channels on the Teltowkanal etc. In West Berlin there are only a few plans for new rainwater treatment plants, for example by the Great Wannsee.