Zitadelle Spandau, Am Juliusturm, Spandau;
Julius Tower, around 1200; Palas, 1521-23; citadel with bastions, curtains, ravelin, gateway glacis, 1557-97 by C. Römer, F. Chiaramella da Gandino, Rochus Guerini Graf zu Lynar
During restoration of the Palas, the Juliusturm and the curtain and bastion walls, predecessors of the current Citadel and various phases of development of the Spandau fort were discovered and investigated. An involved procedure was used to secure constructions of wood and boulders from the eleventh through the sixteenth century. Because of the good state of preservation and the significance of the find, it is presented in Foyer B. The courtyard area lying between the Palas, the Juliusturm and the curtain was also examined. The excavation findings are marked in the pavement of the courtyard and include the course of the fort wall of the fifteenth century, the inner supporting wall of the curtain as well as a reconstructed section of the sixteenth-century court pavement.
The pre-historical and early historical settlement on the area of the present Citadel occupied only about one third of the current area. A partially fortified Slavic settlement was already located on the largest, flood-secure island of valley sand in the ninth century. The Juliusturm was built at the beginning of the thirteenth century. As in the Slavic era, the southern settlement area was separated, this time with a flat trench, and fortified. A boulder fountain stems from the preliminary fort of the fourteenth century, visible in the lawn of the central area. In the fifteenth century the fortifications of wood and earth of the previous phases of the fort were dismantled and replaced by a ring wall of brick. The Palas was built together with the wall, just as it has survived to the present, with its essential building substance intact. Even today the connection of the ring wall can be recognized on the eastern side. Approximately 75 Jewish gravestones were excavated, primarily from the foundations of the Palas and the ring wall. Their use in construction is probably connected with the pogroms in the late Middle Ages. Presumably the Jewish cemetery located just outside the gates of Spandau was desecrated and at least some of its gravestones were stolen at that time. The dates between 1244 and 1474 and their inscriptions make these stones, an important historical source for the history of Jews in Berlin and Spandau. They can be viewed in a special exhibition in the "Königin" (Queen) bastion of the Spandau Citadel. Additional excavation finds include the exposed foundations of the older arsenal at the southern curtain.
Information and tours: +49 (0)30 354944-212 (gatekeeper), -297 (administration).